## CryptoDB

### Giacomo Fenzi

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

SLAP: Succinct Lattice-Based Polynomial Commitments from Standard Assumptions
Abstract

Recent works on lattice-based extractable polynomial commitments can be grouped into two classes: (i) non-interactive constructions that stem from the functional commitment by Albrecht, Cini, Lai, Malavolta and Thyagarajan (CRYPTO 2022), and (ii) lattice adaptations of the Bulletproofs protocol (S&P 2018). The former class enjoys security in the standard model, albeit a knowledge assumption is desired. In contrast, Bulletproof-like protocols can be made secure under falsifiable assumptions, but due to technical limitations regarding subtractive sets, they only offer inverse-polynomial soundness error. This issue becomes particularly problematic when transforming these protocols to the non-interactive setting using the Fiat-Shamir paradigm.
In this work, we propose the first lattice-based non-interactive extractable polynomial commitment scheme which achieves polylogarithmic proof size and verifier runtime (in the length of the committed message) under standard assumptions. At the core of our work lies a new tree-based commitment scheme, along with an efficient proof of polynomial evaluation inspired by FRI (ICALP 2018). Natively, the construction is secure under a “multi-instance version” of the Power-Ring BASIS assumption (Eprint 2023/846). We then base security on the Module-SIS assumption by introducing several re-randomisation techniques which can be of independent interest.

2024

CRYPTO

STIR: Reed–Solomon Proximity Testing with Fewer Queries
Abstract

We present STIR (Shift To Improve Rate), a concretely efficient interactive oracle proof of proximity (IOPP) for Reed--Solomon codes that achieves the best known query complexity of any concretely efficient IOPP for this problem. Roughly, in order to achieve $\lambda$ bits of security, STIR has query complexity $O(\log d + \lambda \cdot \loglog d )$, while the popular FRI protocol (including variants based on conjectured security assumptions) has query complexity $O(\lambda \cdot \log d )$. STIR relies on a new technique for recursively reducing the degree of the function being tested while simultaneously improving the rate.
We provide an implementation of STIR compiled to a SNARK. Compared to FRI, our implementation achieves an improvement in argument size that ranges from $1.25\times$ to $2.46\times$ depending on the chosen parameters. For example, in order to achieve 128 bits of security for degree $2^{26}$ and rate $1/4$, STIR has argument size $114$~KiB, compared to $211$~KiB for FRI.

2024

JOFC

Lattice-Based Polynomial Commitments: Towards Asymptotic and Concrete Efficiency
Abstract

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Polynomial commitments schemes are a powerful tool that enables one party to commit to a polynomial <jats:italic>p</jats:italic> of degree <jats:italic>d</jats:italic>, and prove that the committed function evaluates to a certain value <jats:italic>z</jats:italic> at a specified point <jats:italic>u</jats:italic>, i.e. <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$p(u) = z$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mi>p</mml:mi>
<mml:mo>(</mml:mo>
<mml:mi>u</mml:mi>
<mml:mo>)</mml:mo>
<mml:mo>=</mml:mo>
<mml:mi>z</mml:mi>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>, without revealing any additional information about the polynomial. Recently, polynomial commitments have been extensively used as a cryptographic building block to transform polynomial interactive oracle proofs (PIOPs) into efficient succinct arguments. In this paper, we propose a lattice-based polynomial commitment that achieves succinct proof size and verification time in the degree <jats:italic>d</jats:italic> of the polynomial. Extractability of our scheme holds in the random oracle model under a natural ring version of the BASIS assumption introduced by Wee and Wu (EUROCRYPT 2023). Unlike recent constructions of polynomial commitments by Albrecht et al. (CRYPTO 2022), and by Wee and Wu, we do not require any expensive preprocessing steps, which makes our scheme particularly attractive as an ingredient of a PIOP compiler for succinct arguments. We further instantiate our polynomial commitment, together with the PIOP (EUROCRYPT 2020), to obtain a publicly-verifiable trusted-setup succinct argument for Rank-1 Constraint System (R1CS). Performance-wise, we achieve <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$17$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mn>17</mml:mn>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>MB proof size for <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$2^{20}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msup>
<mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
<mml:mn>20</mml:mn>
</mml:msup>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> constraints, which is <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$15$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mn>15</mml:mn>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>X smaller than currently the only publicly-verifiable lattice-based SNARK proposed by Albrecht et al.</jats:p>

2024

TCC

zkSNARKs in the ROM with Unconditional UC-Security
Abstract

The universal composability (UC) framework is a “gold standard” for security in cryptography. UC-secure protocols achieve strong security guarantees against powerful adaptive adversaries, and retain these guarantees when used as part of larger protocols. Zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (zkSNARKs) are a popular cryptographic primitive that are often used within larger protocols deployed in dynamic environments, and so UC-security is a highly desirable, if not necessary, goal.
In this paper we prove that there exist zkSNARKs in the random oracle model (ROM) that unconditionally achieve UC-security. Here, “unconditionally” means that security holds against adversaries that make a bounded number of queries to the random oracle, but are otherwise computationally unbounded.
Prior work studying UC-security for zkSNARKs obtains transformations that rely on computational assumptions and, in many cases, lose most of the succinctness property of the zkSNARK. Moreover, these transformations make the resulting zkSNARK more expensive and complicated.
In contrast, we prove that widely used zkSNARKs in the ROM are UC-secure without modifications. We prove that the Micali construction, which is the canonical construction of a zkSNARK, is UC-secure. Moreover, we prove that the BCS construction, which many zkSNARKs deployed in practice are based on, is UC-secure. Our results confirm the intuition that these natural zkSNARKs do not need to be augmented to achieve UC-security, and give confidence that their use in larger real-world systems is secure.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Lova: Lattice-Based Folding Scheme from Unstructured Lattices
Abstract

Folding schemes (Kothapalli et al., CRYPTO 2022) are a conceptually simple, yet powerful cryptographic primitive that can be used as a building block to realise incrementally verifiable computation (IVC) with low recursive overhead without general-purpose non-interactive succinct arguments of knowledge (SNARK).
Most folding schemes known rely on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem, and thus are
both not quantum-resistant and operate over large prime fields. Existing post-quantum folding schemes (Boneh, Chen, ePrint 2024/257) based on lattice assumptions instead are secure under structured lattice assumptions, such as the Module Short Integer Solution Assumption (MSIS), which also binds them to relatively complex arithmetic.
In contrast, we construct Lova, the first folding scheme whose security relies on the
(unstructured) SIS assumption. We provide a Rust implementation of Lova, which makes only use of arithmetic in hardware-friendly power-of-two moduli. Crucially, this avoids the need of implementing and performing any finite field arithmetic. At the core of our results lies a new exact Euclidean norm proof which might be of independent interest

#### Coauthors

- Martin R. Albrecht (1)
- Gal Arnon (1)
- Alessandro Chiesa (2)
- Giacomo Fenzi (5)
- Christian Knabenhans (1)
- Oleksandra Lapiha (1)
- Hossein Moghaddas (1)
- Ngoc Khanh Nguyen (3)
- Duc Tu Pham (1)
- Eylon Yogev (1)