International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Keita Xagawa

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
EUROCRYPT
Anonymity of NIST PQC Round 3 KEMs 📺
Keita Xagawa
This paper investigates \emph{anonymity} of all NIST PQC Round~3 KEMs: Classic McEliece, Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU Prime (Streamlined NTRU Prime and NTRU LPRime), and SIKE. We show the following results: * NTRU is anonymous in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) if the underlying deterministic PKE is strongly disjoint-simulatable. NTRU is collision-free in the QROM. A hybrid PKE scheme constructed from NTRU as KEM and appropriate DEM is anonymous and robust. (Similar results for BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU LPRime, and SIKE hold except one of three parameter sets of HQC.) * Classic McEliece is anonymous in the QROM if the underlying PKE is strongly disjoint-simulatable and a hybrid PKE scheme constructed from it as KEM and appropriate DEM is anonymous. * Grubbs, Maram, and Paterson pointed out that Kyber and Saber have a gap in the current IND-CCA security proof in the QROM (EUROCRYPT 2022). We found that Streamlined NTRU Prime has another technical obstacle for the IND-CCA security proof in the QROM. Those answer the open problem to investigate the anonymity and robustness of NIST PQC Round~3 KEMs posed by Grubbs, Maram, and Paterson (EUROCRYPT 2022). We use strong disjoint-simulatability of the underlying PKE of KEM and strong pseudorandomness and smoothness/sparseness of KEM as the main tools, which will be of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Fault-Injection Attacks against NIST’s Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 3 KEM Candidates 📺
We investigate __all__ NIST PQC Round 3 KEM candidates from the viewpoint of fault-injection attacks: Classic McEliece, Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU Prime, and SIKE. All KEM schemes use variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, so the equality test with re-encryption in decapsulation is critical. We survey effective key-recovery attacks when we can skip the equality test. We found the existing key-recovery attacks against Kyber, NTRU, Saber, FrodoKEM, HQC, one of two KEM schemes in NTRU Prime, and SIKE. We propose a new key-recovery attack against the other KEM scheme in NTRU Prime. We also report an attack against BIKE that leads to leakage of information of secret keys. The open-source pqm4 library contains all KEM schemes except Classic McEliece and HQC. We show that giving a single instruction-skipping fault in the decapsulation processes leads to skipping the equality test __virtually__ for Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, and SIKE. We also report the experimental attacks against them. We also report the implementation of NTRU Prime allows chosen-ciphertext attacks freely and the timing side-channel of FrodoKEM reported in Guo, Johansson, and Nilsson (CRYPTO 2020) remains, while there are no such bugs in their NIST PQC Round 3 submissions.
2021
TCHES
Curse of Re-encryption: A Generic Power/EM Analysis on Post-Quantum KEMs
This paper presents a side-channel analysis (SCA) on key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) based on the Fujisaki–Okamoto (FO) transformation and its variants. The FO transformation has been widely used in actively securing KEMs from passively secure public key encryption (PKE), as it is employed in most of NIST post-quantum cryptography (PQC) candidates for KEM. The proposed attack exploits side-channel leakage during execution of a pseudorandom function (PRF) or pseudorandom number generator (PRG) in the re-encryption of KEM decapsulation as a plaintext-checking oracle that tells whether the PKE decryption result is equivalent to the reference plaintext. The generality and practicality of the plaintext-checking oracle allow the proposed attack to attain a full-key recovery of various KEMs when an active attack on the underlying PKE is known. This paper demonstrates that the proposed attack can be applied to most NIST PQC third-round KEM candidates, namely, Kyber, Saber, FrodoKEM, NTRU, NTRU Prime, HQC, BIKE, and SIKE (for BIKE, the proposed attack achieves a partial key recovery). The applicability to Classic McEliece is unclear because there is no known active attack on this cryptosystem. This paper also presents a side-channel distinguisher design based on deep learning (DL) for mounting the proposed attack on practical implementation without the use of a profiling device. The feasibility of the proposed attack is evaluated through experimental attacks on various PRF implementations (a SHAKE software, an AES software, an AES hardware, a bit-sliced masked AES software, and a masked AES hardware based on threshold implementation). Although it is difficult to implement the oracle using the leakage from the TI-based masked hardware, the success of the proposed attack against these implementations (even except for the masked hardware), which include masked software, confirms its practicality.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Non-Committing Encryption with Constant Ciphertext Expansion from Standard Assumptions 📺
Non-committing encryption (NCE) introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC '96) is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. Recently, Yoshida et al. (ASIACRYPT '19) proposed an NCE scheme based on the hardness of the DDH problem, which has ciphertext expansion $\mathcal{O}(\log\lambda)$ and public-key expansion $\mathcal{O}(\lambda^2)$. In this work, we improve their result and propose a methodology to construct an NCE scheme that achieves \emph{constant} ciphertext expansion. Our methodology can be instantiated from the DDH assumption and the LWE assumption. When instantiated from the LWE assumption, the public-key expansion is $\lambda\cdot\mathsf{poly}(\log\lambda)$. They are the first NCE schemes satisfying constant ciphertext expansion without using iO or common reference strings. Along the way, we define a weak notion of NCE, which satisfies only weak forms of correctness and security. We show how to amplify such a weak NCE scheme into a full-fledged one using wiretap codes with a new security property.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Random Oracle Model with Auxiliary Input
The random oracle model (ROM) is an idealized model where hash functions are modeled as random functions that are only accessible as oracles. Although the ROM has been used for proving many cryptographic schemes, it has (at least) two problems. First, the ROM does not capture quantum adversaries. Second, it does not capture non-uniform adversaries that perform preprocessings. To deal with these problems, Boneh et al. (Asiacrypt’11) proposed using the quantum ROM (QROM) to argue post-quantum security, and Unruh (CRYPTO’07) proposed the ROM with auxiliary input (ROM-AI) to argue security against preprocessing attacks. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has dealt with the above two problems simultaneously.In this paper, we consider a model that we call the QROM with (classical) auxiliary input (QROM-AI) that deals with the above two problems simultaneously and study security of cryptographic primitives in the model. That is, we give security bounds for one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, (post-quantum) pseudorandom functions, and (post-quantum) message authentication codes in the QROM-AI.We also study security bounds in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. In other words, we show a security bound for one-wayness of random permutations (instead of random functions) in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. This resolves an open problem posed by Nayebi et al. (QIC’15). In a context of complexity theory, this implies $$ \mathsf {NP}\cap \mathsf {coNP} \not \subseteq \mathsf {BQP/qpoly}$$ relative to a random permutation oracle, which also answers an open problem posed by Aaronson (ToC’05).
2018
EUROCRYPT
2017
ASIACRYPT
2016
ASIACRYPT
2014
PKC
2014
PKC
2013
PKC
2013
PKC
2012
PKC
2010
PKC
2009
ASIACRYPT
2008
ASIACRYPT
2007
PKC

Program Committees

PKC 2022