Unconditionally Secure NIZK in the Fine-Grained Setting
Non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof systems are often constructed based on cryptographic assumptions. In this paper, we propose the first unconditionally secure NIZK system in the AC0-fine-grained setting. More precisely, our NIZK system has perfect soundness for all adversaries and unconditional zero-knowledge for AC0 adversaries, namely, an AC0 adversary can only break the zero-knowledge property with negligible probability unconditionally. At the core of our construction is an OR-proof system for satisfiability of 1 out of polynomial many statements.
Lattice-based Signatures with Tight Adaptive Corruptions and More 📺
We construct the first tightly secure signature schemes in the multi-user setting with adaptive corruptions from lattices. In stark contrast to the previous tight constructions whose security is solely based on number-theoretic assumptions, our schemes are based on the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption which is supposed to be post-quantum secure. The security of our scheme is independent of the numbers of users and signing queries, and it is in the non-programmable random oracle model. Our LWE-based scheme is compact, namely, its signatures contain only a constant number of lattice vectors. At the core of our construction are a new abstraction of the existing lossy identification (ID) schemes using dual-mode commitment schemes and a refinement of the framework by Diemert et al. (PKC 2021) which transforms a lossy ID scheme to a signature using sequential OR proofs. In combination, we obtain a tight generic construction of signatures from dual-mode commitments in the multi-user setting. Improving the work of Diemert et al., our new approach can be instantiated using not only the LWE assumption, but also an isogeny-based assumption. We stress that our LWE-based lossy ID scheme in the intermediate step uses a conceptually different idea than the previous lattice-based ones. Of independent interest, we formally rule out the possibility that the aforementioned ``ID-to-Signature'' methodology can work tightly using parallel OR proofs. In addition to the results of Fischlin et al. (EUROCRYPT 2020), our impossibility result shows a qualitative difference between both forms of OR proofs in terms of tightness.
Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Fine-Grained Security 📺
We construct the first non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof systems in the fine-grained setting where adversaries' resources are bounded and honest users have no more resources than an adversary. More concretely, our setting is the NC1-fine-grained setting, namely, all parties (including adversaries and honest participants) are in NC1. Our NIZK systems are for circuit satisfiability (SAT) under the worst-case assumption, $NC1 \subsetneq L/poly$. As technical contributions, we propose two approaches to construct NIZK in the NC1-fine-grained setting. In stark contrast to the classical Fiat-Shamir transformation, both our approaches start with a simple Sigma-protocol and transform it into NIZKs for circuit SAT without random oracles. Additionally, our second approach firstly proposes a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme in the fine-grained setting, which was not known before, as a building block. Compared with the first approach, the resulting NIZK only supports circuits with constant multiplicative depth, while its proof size is independent of the statement circuit size. Extending our approaches, we obtain two NIZK systems in the uniform reference string model and two non-interactive zaps (namely, non-interactive witness-indistinguishability proof systems in the plain model). While the previous constructions from Ball, Dachman-Soled, and Kulkarni (CRYPTO 2020) require provers to run in polynomial-time, our constructions are the first one with provers in NC1.
Compact and Tightly Selective-Opening Secure Public-key Encryption Schemes
We propose four public-key encryption schemes with tight simulation-based selective-opening security against chosen-ciphertext attacks (SIM-SO-CCA) in the random oracle model. Our schemes only consist of small constant amounts of group elements in the ciphertext, ignoring smaller contributions from symmetric-key encryption, namely, they have compact ciphertexts. Furthermore, three of our schemes have compact public keys as well. Known (almost) tightly SIM-SO-CCA secure PKE schemes are due to the work of Lyu et al. (PKC 2018) and Libert et al. (Crypto 2017). They have either linear-size ciphertexts or linear-size public keys. Moreover, they only achieve almost tightness, namely, with security loss depending on the message bit-length. Different to them, our schemes are the first ones achieving both tight SIM-SO-CCA security and compactness. Our schemes can be divided into two families: - Direct Constructions. Our first three schemes are constructed directly based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (StDH), Computational DH (CDH), and Decisional DH assumptions. Both their ciphertexts and public keys are compact. Their security loss is a small constant. Interestingly, our CDH-based construction is the first scheme achieving all these advantages based on a weak, search assumption. - A Generic Construction. Our last scheme is the well-known Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation. We show that it can turn a lossy encryption scheme into a tightly SIM-SO-CCA secure PKE. This transformation preserves both tightness and compactness of the underlying lossy encryption, which is in contrast to the non-tight proof of Heuer et al. (PKC 2015).
Authenticated Key Exchange and Signatures with Tight Security in the Standard Model 📺
We construct the first authenticated key exchange protocols that achieve tight security in the standard model. Previous works either relied on techniques that seem to inherently require a random oracle, or achieved only “Multi-Bit-Guess” security, which is not known to compose tightly, for instance, to build a secure channel. Our constructions are generic, based on digital signatures and key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs). The main technical challenges we resolve is to determine suitable KEM security notions which on the one hand are strong enough to yield tight security, but at the same time weak enough to be efficiently instantiable in the standard model, based on standard techniques such as universal hash proof systems. Digital signature schemes with tight multi-user security in presence of adaptive corruptions are a central building block, which is used in all known constructions of tightly-secure AKE with full forward security. We identify a subtle gap in the security proof of the only previously known efficient standard model scheme by Bader et al. (TCC 2015). We develop a new variant, which yields the currently most efficient signature scheme that achieves this strong security notion without random oracles and based on standard hardness assumptions.
Fine-grained Secure Attribute-based Encryption 📺
Fine-grained cryptography is constructing cryptosystems in a setting where an adversary’s resource is a-prior bounded and an honest party has less resource than an adversary. Currently, only simple form of encryption schemes, such as secret-key and public-key encryption, are constructed in this setting. In this paper, we enrich the available tools in fine-grained cryptography by proposing the first fine-grained secure attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme. Our construction is adaptively secure under the widely accepted worst-case assumption, $NC1 \subsetneq \oplus L/poly$, and it is presented in a generic manner using the notion of predicate encodings (Wee, TCC’14). By properly instantiating the underlying encoding, we can obtain different types of ABE schemes, including identity-based encryption. Previously, all of these schemes were unknown in fine-grained cryptography. Our main technical contribution is constructing ABE schemes without using pairing or the Diffie-Hellman assumption. Hence, our results show that, even if one-way functions do not exist, we still have ABE schemes with meaningful security. For more application of our techniques, we construct an efficient (quasi-adaptive) non-interactive zero-knowledge (QA-NIZK) proof system.
Lattice-Based Group Encryption with Full Dynamicity and Message Filtering Policy 📺
Group encryption (GE) is a fundamental privacy-preserving primitive analog of group signatures, which allows users to decrypt speciﬁc ciphertexts while hiding themselves within a crowd. Since its ﬁrst birth, numerous constructions have been proposed, among which the schemes separately constructed by Libert et al. (Asiacrypt 2016) over lattices and by Nguyen et al. (PKC 2021) over coding theory are postquantum secure. Though the last scheme, at the ﬁrst time, achieved the full dynamicity (allowing group users to join or leave the group in their ease) and message ﬁltering policy, which greatly improved the state-of-aﬀairs of GE systems, its practical applications are still limited due to the rather complicated design, ineﬃciency and the weaker security (secure in the random oracles). In return, the Libert et al.’s scheme possesses a solid security (secure in the standard model), but it lacks the previous functions and still suﬀers from ineﬃciency because of extremely using lattice trapdoors. In this work, we re-formalize the model and security deﬁnitions of fully dynamic group encryption (FDGE) that are essentially equivalent to but more succinct than Nguyen et al.’s; Then, we provide a generic and eﬃcient zero-knowledge proof method for proving that a binary vector is non-zero over lattices, on which a proof for the Prohibitive message ﬁltering policy in the lattice setting is ﬁrst achieved (yet in a simple manner); Finally, by combining appropriate cryptographic materials and our presented zero-knowledge proofs, we achieve the ﬁrst latticebased FDGE schemes in a simpler manner, which needs no any lattice trapdoor and is proved secure in the standard model (assuming interaction during the proof phase), outweighing the existing post-quantum secure GE systems in terms of functions, eﬃciency and security.
Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption with Tight Multi-challenge Security 📺
We construct the first hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme with tight adaptive security in the multi-challenge setting, where adversaries are allowed to ask for ciphertexts for multiple adaptively chosen identities. Technically, we develop a novel technique that can tightly introduce randomness into user secret keys for hierarchical identities in the multi-challenge setting, which cannot be easily achieved by the existing techniques for tightly multi-challenge secure IBE. In contrast to the previous constructions, the security of our scheme is independent of the number of user secret key queries and that of challenge ciphertext queries. We prove the tight security of our scheme based on the Matrix Decisional Diffie-Hellman Assumption, which is an abstraction of standard and simple decisional Diffie-Hellman assumptions, such as the k -Linear and SXDH assumptions. Finally, we also extend our ideas to achieve tight chosen-ciphertext security and anonymity, respectively. These security notions for HIBE have not been tightly achieved in the multi-challenge setting before.
Unbounded HIBE with Tight Security 📺
We construct the first unbounded hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme with tight security reductions based on standard assumptions. Our main technical contribution is a novel proof strategy that allows us to tightly randomize user secret keys for identities with arbitrary hierarchy depths using low entropy hidden in a small and hierarchy-independent master public key. The notion of unbounded HIBE is proposed by Lewko and Waters (Eurocrypt 2011). In contrast to most HIBE schemes, an unbounded scheme does not require any maximum depth to be specified in the setup phase, and user secret keys or ciphertexts can be generated for identities of arbitrary depths with hierarchy-independent system parameters. While all the previous unbounded HIBE schemes have security loss that grows at least linearly in the number of user secret key queries, the security loss of our scheme is only dependent on the security parameter, even in the multi-challenge setting, where an adversary can ask for multiple challenge ciphertexts. We prove the adaptive security of our scheme based on the Matrix Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in prime-order pairing groups, which generalizes a family of standard Diffie-Hellman assumptions such as k-Linear.
Tightly Secure Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption
We construct the first tightly secure hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme based on standard assumptions, which solves an open problem from Blazy, Kiltz, and Pan (CRYPTO 2014). At the core of our constructions is a novel randomization technique that enables us to randomize user secret keys for identities with flexible length. The security reductions of previous HIBEs lose at least a factor of Q, which is the number of user secret key queries. Different to that, the security loss of our schemes is only dependent on the security parameter. Our schemes are adaptively secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption, which is a generalization of standard Diffie-Hellman assumptions such as k-Linear. We have two tightly secure constructions, one with constant ciphertext size, and the other with tighter security at the cost of linear ciphertext size. Among other things, our schemes imply the first tightly secure identity-based signature scheme by a variant of the Naor transformation.
Tightly Secure Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption
We construct the first tightly secure hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme based on standard assumptions, which solves an open problem from Blazy, Kiltz, and Pan (CRYPTO 2014). At the core of our constructions is a novel randomization technique that enables us to randomize user secret keys for identities with flexible length.The security reductions of previous HIBEs lose at least a factor of $$ Q $$, which is the number of user secret key queries. Different to that, the security loss of our schemes is only dependent on the security parameter. Our schemes are adaptively secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption, which is a generalization of standard Diffie-Hellman assumptions such as $$k$$-Linear. We have two tightly secure constructions, one with constant ciphertext size, and the other with tighter security at the cost of linear ciphertext size. Among other things, our schemes imply the first tightly secure identity-based signature scheme by a variant of the Naor transformation.
Shorter QA-NIZK and SPS with Tighter Security
Quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (QA-NIZK) systems and structure-preserving signature (SPS) schemes are two powerful tools for constructing practical pairing-based cryptographic schemes. Their efficiency directly affects the efficiency of the derived advanced protocols.We construct more efficient QA-NIZK and SPS schemes with tight security reductions. Our QA-NIZK scheme is the first one that achieves both tight simulation soundness and constant proof size (in terms of number of group elements) at the same time, while the recent scheme from Abe et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) achieved tight security with proof size linearly depending on the size of the language and the witness. Assuming the hardness of the Symmetric eXternal Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) problem, our scheme contains only 14 elements in the proof and remains independent of the size of the language and the witness. Moreover, our scheme has tighter simulation soundness than the previous schemes.Technically, we refine and extend a partitioning technique from a recent SPS scheme (Gay et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of the tightly secure SPS schemes by using a relaxation of NIZK proof system for OR languages, called designated-prover NIZK system. Under the SXDH assumption, our SPS scheme contains 11 group elements in the signature, which is shortest among the tight schemes and is the same as an early non-tight scheme (Abe et al., ASIACRYPT 2012). Compared to the shortest known non-tight scheme (Jutla and Roy, PKC 2017), our scheme achieves tight security at the cost of 5 additional elements.All the schemes in this paper are proven secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumptions (Escala et al., CRYPTO 2013). These are a class of assumptions which include the well-known SXDH and DLIN assumptions and provide clean algebraic insights to our constructions. To the best of our knowledge, our schemes achieve the best efficiency among schemes with the same functionality and security properties. This naturally leads to improvement of the efficiency of cryptosystems based on simulation-sound QA-NIZK and SPS.
Identity-Based Encryption Tightly Secure Under Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks
We propose the first identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme that is (almost) tightly secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks. Our scheme is efficient, in the sense that its ciphertext overhead is only seven group elements, three group elements more than that of the state-of-the-art passively (almost) tightly secure IBE scheme. Our scheme is secure in a multi-challenge setting, i.e., in face of an arbitrary number of challenge ciphertexts. The security of our scheme is based upon the standard symmetric external Diffie-Hellman assumption in pairing-friendly groups, but we also consider (less efficient) generalizations under weaker assumptions.
Simple and More Efficient PRFs with Tight Security from LWE and Matrix-DDH
We construct efficient and tightly secure pseudorandom functions (PRFs) with only logarithmic security loss and short secret keys. This yields very simple and efficient variants of well-known constructions, including those of Naor-Reingold (FOCS 1997) and Lewko-Waters (ACM CCS 2009). Most importantly, in combination with the construction of Banerjee, Peikert and Rosen (EUROCRYPT 2012) we obtain the currently most efficient LWE-based PRF from a weak LWE-assumption with a much smaller modulus than the original construction. In comparison to the only previous construction with this property, which is due to Döttling and Schröder (CRYPTO 2015), we use a modulus of similar size, but only a single instance of the underlying PRF, instead of parallel instances, where is the security parameter. Like Döttling and Schröder, our security proof is only almost back-box, due to the fact that the number of queries made by the adversary and its advantage must be known a-priori.Technically, we introduce all-prefix universal hash functions (APUHFs), which are hash functions that are (almost-)universal, even if any prefix of the output is considered. We give simple and very efficient constructions of APUHFs, and show how they can be combined with the augmented cascade of Boneh et al. (ACM CCS 2010) to obtain our results. Along the way, we develop a new and more direct way to prove security of PRFs based on the augmented cascade.
- PKC 2022
- Asiacrypt 2021
- Asiacrypt 2020
- Asiacrypt 2019
- Masayuki Abe (2)
- Olivier Blazy (2)
- Yu Chen (1)
- Xiaofeng Chen (1)
- Romain Gay (1)
- Shuai Han (1)
- Dennis Hofheinz (3)
- Tibor Jager (2)
- Dingding Jia (1)
- Charanjit S. Jutla (1)
- Saqib A. Kakvi (1)
- Eike Kiltz (6)
- Lisa Kohl (1)
- Rafael Kurek (1)
- Roman Langrehr (4)
- Shengli Liu (1)
- Julian Loss (1)
- Daniel Masny (1)
- Ryo Nishimaki (1)
- Miyako Ohkubo (2)
- Doreen Riepel (1)
- Arnab Roy (1)
- Sven Schäge (1)
- Willy Susilo (1)
- Benedikt Wagner (1)
- Yuyu Wang (4)
- Hoeteck Wee (1)
- Runzhi Zeng (1)
- Fangguo Zhang (1)