## CryptoDB

### Charanjit S. Jutla

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

EUROCRYPT

Sine Series Approximation of the Mod Function for Bootstrapping of Approximate HE
📺
Abstract

While it is well known that the sawtooth function has a point-wise convergent
Fourier series, the rate of convergence is not the
best possible for the application of approximating the mod function
in small intervals around multiples of the modulus.
We show a different sine series, such that the
sine series of order $n$ has error $O(\epsilon^{2n+1})$ for approximating
the mod function in $\epsilon$-sized intervals around multiples of the modulus.
Moreover, the resulting polynomial, after Taylor series approximation of the
sine function, has small coefficients, and the whole polynomial can be computed
at a precision that is only slightly larger than
$-(2n+1)\log \epsilon$, the precision of approximation being sought. This polynomial can then be used to approximate the mod function to almost arbitrary precision,
and hence allows practical CKKS-HE bootstrapping with arbitrary precision. We validate our approach
by an implementation and obtain $100$ bit precision bootstrapping as well as improvements over prior work even at lower precision.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Efficient Searchable Symmetric Encryption for Join Queries
📺
Abstract

The Oblivious Cross-Tags (OXT) protocol due to Cash et al. (CRYPTO 2013) is a highly scalable searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) scheme that allows fast processing of conjunctive and more general Boolean queries over encrypted relational databases. A longstanding open question has been to extend OXT to also support queries over joins of tables without pre-computing the joins. In this paper, we solve this open question without compromising on the nice properties of OXT with respect to both security and efficiency. We propose Join Cross-Tags (JXT) - a purely symmetric-key solution that supports efficient conjunctive queries over (equi-) joins of encrypted tables without any pre-computation at setup. JXT is fully compatible with OXT, and can be used in conjunction with OXT to support a wide class of SQL queries directly over encrypted relational databases. JXT incurs a storage cost (over OXT) of a factor equal to the number of potential join-attributes in a table, which is usually compensated by the fact that JXT is a fully symmetric-key solution (as opposed to OXT which relies on discrete-log hard groups). We prove the (adaptive) simulation-based security of JXT with respect to a rigorously defined leakage profile.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Shorter QA-NIZK and SPS with Tighter Security
Abstract

Quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (QA-NIZK) systems and structure-preserving signature (SPS) schemes are two powerful tools for constructing practical pairing-based cryptographic schemes. Their efficiency directly affects the efficiency of the derived advanced protocols.We construct more efficient QA-NIZK and SPS schemes with tight security reductions. Our QA-NIZK scheme is the first one that achieves both tight simulation soundness and constant proof size (in terms of number of group elements) at the same time, while the recent scheme from Abe et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) achieved tight security with proof size linearly depending on the size of the language and the witness. Assuming the hardness of the Symmetric eXternal Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) problem, our scheme contains only 14 elements in the proof and remains independent of the size of the language and the witness. Moreover, our scheme has tighter simulation soundness than the previous schemes.Technically, we refine and extend a partitioning technique from a recent SPS scheme (Gay et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of the tightly secure SPS schemes by using a relaxation of NIZK proof system for OR languages, called designated-prover NIZK system. Under the SXDH assumption, our SPS scheme contains 11 group elements in the signature, which is shortest among the tight schemes and is the same as an early non-tight scheme (Abe et al., ASIACRYPT 2012). Compared to the shortest known non-tight scheme (Jutla and Roy, PKC 2017), our scheme achieves tight security at the cost of 5 additional elements.All the schemes in this paper are proven secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumptions (Escala et al., CRYPTO 2013). These are a class of assumptions which include the well-known SXDH and DLIN assumptions and provide clean algebraic insights to our constructions. To the best of our knowledge, our schemes achieve the best efficiency among schemes with the same functionality and security properties. This naturally leads to improvement of the efficiency of cryptosystems based on simulation-sound QA-NIZK and SPS.

2018

PKC

Improved (Almost) Tightly-Secure Structure-Preserving Signatures
Abstract

Structure Preserving Signatures (SPS) allow the signatures and the messages signed to be further encrypted while retaining the ability to be proven valid under zero-knowledge. In particular, SPS are tailored to have structure suitable for Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs. More precisely, the messages, signatures, and verification keys are required to be elements of groups that support efficient bilinear-pairings (bilinear groups), and the signature verification consists of just evaluating one or more bilinear-pairing product equations. Since Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs can (with zero-knowledge) prove the validity of such pairing product equations, it leads to interesting applications such as blind signatures, group signatures, traceable signatures, group encryption, and delegatable credential systems.In this paper, we further improve on the SPS scheme of Abe, Hofheinz, Nishimaki, Ohkubo and Pan (CRYPTO 2017) while maintaining only an
$$O(\lambda )$$
O(λ)-factor security reduction loss to the SXDH assumption. In particular, we compress the size of the signatures by almost 40%, and reduce the number of pairing-product equations in the verifier from fifteen to seven. Recall that structure preserving signatures are used in applications by encrypting the messages and/or the signatures, and hence these optimizations are further amplified as proving pairing-product equations in Groth-Sahai NIZK system is not frugal. While our scheme uses an important novel technique introduced by Hofheinz (EuroCrypt 2017), i.e. structure-preserving adaptive partitioning, our approach to building the signature scheme is different and this leads to the optimizations mentioned. Thus we make progress towards an open problem stated by Abe et al. (CRYPTO 2017) to design more compact SPS-es with smaller number of group elements.

2018

TCC

Smooth NIZK Arguments
Abstract

We introduce a novel notion of smooth (-verifier) non- interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZK) which parallels the familiar notion of smooth projective hash functions (SPHF). We also show that the single group element quasi-adaptive NIZK (QA-NIZK) of Jutla and Roy (CRYPTO 2014) and Kiltz and Wee (EuroCrypt 2015) for linear subspaces can be easily extended to be computationally smooth. One important distinction of the new notion from SPHFs is that in a smooth NIZK the public evaluation of the hash on a language member using the projection key does not require the witness of the language member, but instead just requires its NIZK proof.This has the remarkable consequence that if one replaces the traditionally employed SPHFs with the novel smooth QA-NIZK in the Gennaro-Lindell paradigm of designing universally-composable password- authenticated key-exchange (UC-PAKE) protocols, one gets highly efficient UC-PAKE protocols that are secure even under adaptive corruption. This simpler and modular design methodology allows us to give the first single-round asymmetric UC-PAKE protocol, which is also secure under adaptive corruption in the erasure model. Previously, all asymmetric UC-PAKE protocols required at least two rounds. In fact, our protocol just requires each party to send a single message asynchronously. In addition, the protocol has short messages, with each party sending only four group elements. Moreover, the server password file needs to store only one group element per client. The protocol employs asymmetric bilinear pairing groups and is proven secure in the (limited programmability) random oracle model and under the standard bilinear pairing assumption SXDH.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Improved (Almost) Tightly-Secure Simulation-Sound QA-NIZK with Applications
Abstract

We construct the first (almost) tightly-secure unbounded-simulation-sound quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments (USS-QA-NIZK) for linear-subspace languages with compact (number of group elements independent of the security parameter) common reference string (CRS) and compact proofs under standard assumptions in bilinear-pairings groups. In particular, under the SXDH assumption, the USS-QA-NIZK proof size is only seventeen group elements with a factor $$O(\log {Q})$$ loss in security reduction to SXDH. The USS-QA-NIZK primitive has many applications, including structure-preserving signatures (SPS), CCA2-secure publicly-verifiable public-key encryption (PKE), which in turn have applications to CCA-anonymous group signatures, blind signatures and unbounded simulation-sound Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs. We show that the almost tight security of our USS-QA-NIZK translates into constructions of all of the above applications with (almost) tight-security to standard assumptions such as SXDH and, more generally, $$\mathcal{D}_k$$-MDDH. Thus, we get the first publicly-verifiable (almost) tightly-secure multi-user/multi-challenge CCA2-secure PKE with practical efficiency under standard bilinear assumptions. Our (almost) tight SPS construction is also improved in the signature size over previously known constructions.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2015
- Eurocrypt 2014
- FSE 2010
- TCC 2009
- FSE 2008
- FSE 2007
- FSE 2006
- FSE 2004
- Crypto 2003

#### Coauthors

- Masayuki Abe (2)
- David Cash (1)
- Suresh Chari (1)
- Don Coppersmith (3)
- Jean-Sébastien Coron (1)
- Pradeep K. Dubey (1)
- François Grieu (1)
- Shai Halevi (3)
- Stanislaw Jarecki (1)
- Hugo Krawczyk (1)
- Vijay Kumar (1)
- Nathan Manohar (1)
- David Naccache (1)
- Miyako Ohkubo (3)
- Jiaxin Pan (1)
- Sikhar Patranabis (1)
- Josyula R. Rao (2)
- Pankaj Rohatgi (2)
- Marcel-Catalin Rosu (1)
- Arnay Roy (9)
- Arnab Roy (1)
- Atri Rudra (1)
- Michael Steiner (1)
- Julien P. Stern (1)
- Yuyu Wang (1)