International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Selective Opening Security in the Quantum Random Oracle Model, Revisited

Jiaxin Pan , University of Kassel, Germany
Runzhi Zeng , NTNU, Norway
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Presentation: Slides
Conference: PKC 2024
Abstract: We prove that two variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformations are selective opening secure (SO) against chosen-ciphertext attacks in the quantum random oracle model (QROM), assuming that the underlying public-key encryption scheme is one-way secure against chosen-plaintext attacks (OW-CPA). The two variants we consider are $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ (Hofheinz, Hövelmanns, and Kiltz, TCC 2017) and $\mathsf{U}^{\not{\bot}}_\mathsf{m}$ (Jiang et al., CRYPTO 2018). This is the first correct proof in the QROM. The previous work of Sato and Shikata (IMACC 2019) showed the SO security of $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ in the QROM. However, we identify a subtle gap in their work. To close this gap, we propose a new framework that allows us to adaptively reprogram a QRO with respect to multiple queries that are computationally hard to predict. This is a property that can be easily achieved by the classical ROM, but is very hard to achieve in the QROM. Hence, our framework brings the QROM closer to the classical ROM. Under our new framework, we construct the \emph{first tightly} SO secure PKE in the QROM using lossy encryption. Our final application is proving $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ and $\mathsf{U}^{\not{\bot}}_\mathsf{m}$ are bi-selective opening (Bi-SO) secure in the QROM. This is a stronger SO security notion, where an adversary can additionally corrupt some users' secret keys.
  title={Selective Opening Security in the Quantum Random Oracle Model, Revisited},
  author={Jiaxin Pan and Runzhi Zeng},