International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Runzhi Zeng

ORCID: 0000-0002-8606-3007


Selective Opening Security in the Quantum Random Oracle Model, Revisited
Jiaxin Pan Runzhi Zeng
We prove that two variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformations are selective opening secure (SO) against chosen-ciphertext attacks in the quantum random oracle model (QROM), assuming that the underlying public-key encryption scheme is one-way secure against chosen-plaintext attacks (OW-CPA). The two variants we consider are $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ (Hofheinz, Hövelmanns, and Kiltz, TCC 2017) and $\mathsf{U}^{\not{\bot}}_\mathsf{m}$ (Jiang et al., CRYPTO 2018). This is the first correct proof in the QROM. The previous work of Sato and Shikata (IMACC 2019) showed the SO security of $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ in the QROM. However, we identify a subtle gap in their work. To close this gap, we propose a new framework that allows us to adaptively reprogram a QRO with respect to multiple queries that are computationally hard to predict. This is a property that can be easily achieved by the classical ROM, but is very hard to achieve in the QROM. Hence, our framework brings the QROM closer to the classical ROM. Under our new framework, we construct the \emph{first tightly} SO secure PKE in the QROM using lossy encryption. Our final application is proving $\mathsf{FO}^{\not{\bot}}$ and $\mathsf{U}^{\not{\bot}}_\mathsf{m}$ are bi-selective opening (Bi-SO) secure in the QROM. This is a stronger SO security notion, where an adversary can additionally corrupt some users' secret keys.
Key Exchange with Tight (Full) Forward Secrecy via Key Confirmation
Weak forward secrecy (wFS) of authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols is a passive variant of (full) forward secrecy (FS). A natural mechanism to upgrade from wFS to FS is the use of key confirmation messages which compute a message authentication code (MAC) over the transcript. Unfortunately, Gellert, Gjøsteen, Jacobson and Jager (GGJJ, CRYPTO 2023) show that this mechanism inherently incurs a loss proportional to the number of users, leading to an overall non-tight reduction, even if wFS was established using a tight reduction. Inspired by GGJJ, we propose a new notion, called one-way verifiable weak forward secrecy (OW-VwFS), and prove that OW-VwFS can be transformed tightly to FS using key confirmation in the random oracle model (ROM). To implement our generic transformation, we show that several tightly wFS AKE protocols additionally satisfy our OW-VwFS notion tightly. We highlight that using the recent lattice-based protocol from Pan, Wagner, and Zeng (CRYPTO 2023) can give us the first lattice-based tightly FS AKE via key confirmation in the classical random oracle model. Besides this, we also obtain a Decisional-Diffie-Hellman-based protocol that is considerably more efficient than the previous ones. Finally, we lift our study on FS via key confirmation to the quantum random oracle model (QROM). While our security reduction is overall non-tight, it matches the best existing bound for wFS in the QROM (Pan, Wagner, and Zeng, ASIACRYPT 2023), namely, it is square-root- and session-tight. Our analysis is in the multi-challenge setting, and it is more realistic than the single-challenge setting as in Pan et al..
Lattice-based Authenticated Key Exchange with Tight Security
We construct the first tightly secure authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol from lattices. Known tight constructions are all based on Diffie-Hellman-like assumptions. Thus, our protocol is the first construction with tight security from a post-quantum assumption. Our AKE protocol is constructed tightly from a new security notion for key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs), called one-way security against checkable chosen-ciphertext attacks (OW-ChCCA). We show how an OW-ChCCA secure KEM can be tightly constructed based on the Learning With Errors assumption, leading to the desired AKE protocol. To show the usefulness of OW-ChCCA security beyond AKE, we use it to construct the first tightly bilateral selective-opening (BiSO) secure PKE. BiSO security is a stronger selective-opening notion proposed by Lai et al. (ASIACRYPT 2021).
A Generic Construction of Tightly Secure Password-based Authenticated Key Exchange
Jiaxin Pan Runzhi Zeng
We propose a generic construction of password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) from key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM). Assuming that the KEM is one-way secure against plaintext-checkable attacks (OW-PCA), we prove that our PAKE protocol is \textit{tightly secure} in the Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway model (EUROCRYPT 2000). Our tight security proofs require ideal ciphers and random oracles. The OW-PCA security is relatively weak and can be implemented tightly with the Diffie-Hellman assumption, which generalizes the work of Liu et al. (PKC 2023), and ``almost'' tightly with lattice-based assumptions, which tightens the security loss of the work of Beguinet et al. (ACNS 2023) and allows more efficient practical implementation with Kyber. Beyond these, it opens an opportunity of constructing tight PAKE based on various assumptions.
Tighter Security for Generic Authenticated Key Exchange in the QROM
We give a tighter security proof for authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols that are generically constructed from key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). Previous works (Hövelmanns et al., PKC 2020) gave reductions for such a KEM-based AKE protocol in the QROM to the underlying primitives with square-root loss and a security loss in the number of users and total sessions. Our proof is much tighter and does not have square-root loss. Namely, it only loses a factor depending on the number of users, not on the number of sessions. Our main enabler is a new variant of lossy encryption which we call parameter lossy encryption. In this variant, there are not only lossy public keys, but also lossy system parameters. This allows us to embed a computational assumption into the system parameters, and the lossy public keys are statistically close to the normal public keys. Combining with the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, we obtain the first tightly IND-CCA secure KEM in the QROM in a multi-user (without corruption), multi-challenge setting. Finally, we show that a multi-user, multi-challenge KEM implies a square-root-tight and session-tight AKE protocol in the QROM. By implementing the parameter lossy encryption tightly from lattices, we obtain the first square-root-tight and session-tight AKE from lattices in the QROM.
Compact and Tightly Selective-Opening Secure Public-key Encryption Schemes 📺
Jiaxin Pan Runzhi Zeng
We propose four public-key encryption schemes with tight simulation-based selective-opening security against chosen-ciphertext attacks (SIM-SO-CCA) in the random oracle model. Our schemes only consist of small constant amounts of group elements in the ciphertext, ignoring smaller contributions from symmetric-key encryption, namely, they have compact ciphertexts. Furthermore, three of our schemes have compact public keys as well. Known (almost) tightly SIM-SO-CCA secure PKE schemes are due to the work of Lyu et al. (PKC 2018) and Libert et al. (Crypto 2017). They have either linear-size ciphertexts or linear-size public keys. Moreover, they only achieve almost tightness, namely, with security loss depending on the message bit-length. Different to them, our schemes are the first ones achieving both tight SIM-SO-CCA security and compactness. Our schemes can be divided into two families: - Direct Constructions. Our first three schemes are constructed directly based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (StDH), Computational DH (CDH), and Decisional DH assumptions. Both their ciphertexts and public keys are compact. Their security loss is a small constant. Interestingly, our CDH-based construction is the first scheme achieving all these advantages based on a weak, search assumption. - A Generic Construction. Our last scheme is the well-known Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation. We show that it can turn a lossy encryption scheme into a tightly SIM-SO-CCA secure PKE. This transformation preserves both tightness and compactness of the underlying lossy encryption, which is in contrast to the non-tight proof of Heuer et al. (PKC 2015).


Jiaxin Pan (6)
Doreen Riepel (1)
Benedikt Wagner (2)