International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Foteini Baldimtsi


Oblivious Accumulators
A cryptographic accumulator is a succinct set commitment scheme with efficient (non-)membership proofs that typically supports updates (additions and deletions) on the accumulated set. When elements are added to or deleted from the set, an update message is issued. The collection of all the update messages essentially leaks the underlying accumulated set which in certain applications is not desirable. In this work, we define oblivious accumulators, a set commitment with concise membership proofs that hides the elements and the set size from every entity: an outsider, a verifier or other element holders. We formalize this notion of privacy via two properties: element hiding and add-delete indistinguishability. We also define almost-oblivious accumulators, that only achieve a weaker notion of privacy called add-delete unlinkability. Such accumulators hide the elements but not the set size. We consider the trapdoorless, decentralized setting where different users can add and delete elements from the accumulator and compute membership proofs. We then give a generic construction of an oblivious accumulator based on key-value commitments (KVC). We also show a generic way to construct KVCs from an accumulator and a vector commitment scheme. Finally, we give lower bounds on the communication (size of update messages) required for oblivious accumulators and almost-oblivious accumulators.
Advancing Scalability in Decentralized Storage: A Novel Approach to Proof-of-Replication via Polynomial Evaluation
Proof-of-Replication (PoRep) plays a pivotal role in decentralized storage networks, serving as a mechanism to verify that provers consistently store retrievable copies of specific data. While PoRep’s utility is unquestionable, its implementation in large-scale systems, such as Filecoin, has been hindered by scalability challenges. Most existing PoRep schemes, such as Fisch’s (Eurocrypt 2019), face an escalating number of challenges and growing computational overhead as the number of stored files increases. This paper introduces a novel PoRep scheme distinctively tailored for expansive decentralized storage networks. At its core, our approach hinges on polynomial evaluation, diverging from the probabilistic checking prevalent in prior works. Remarkably, our design requires only a single challenge, irrespective of the number of files, ensuring both prover’s and verifier’s run-times remain manageable even as file counts soar. Our approach introduces a paradigm shift in PoRep designs, offering a blueprint for highly scalable and efficient decentralized storage solutions.
Crowd Verifiable Zero-Knowledge and End-to-end Verifiable Multiparty Computation 📺
Auditing a secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocol entails the validation of the protocol transcript by a third party that is otherwise untrusted. In this work we introduce the concept of end-to-end verifiable MPC (VMPC), that requires the validation to provide a correctness guarantee even in the setting that all servers, trusted setup primitives and all the client systems utilized by the input-providing users of the MPC protocol are subverted by an adversary. To instantiate VMPC, we introduce a new concept in the setting of zero-knowlegde protocols that we term crowd verifiable zero-knowledge (CVZK). A CVZK protocol enables a prover to convince a set of verifiers about a certain statement, even though each one individually contributes a small amount of entropy for verification and some of them are adversarially controlled. Given CVZK, we present a VMPC protocol that is based on discrete-logarithm related assumptions. At the high level of adversity that VMPC is meant to withstand, it is infeasible to ensure perfect correctness, thus we investigate the classes of functions and verifiability relations that are feasible in our framework, and present a number of possible applications the underlying functions of which can be implemented via VMPC.
Efficient Noninteractive Certification of RSA Moduli and Beyond
In many applications, it is important to verify that an RSA public key (N, e) specifies a permutation over the entire space $$\mathbb {Z}_N$$ , in order to prevent attacks due to adversarially-generated public keys. We design and implement a simple and efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge protocol (in the random oracle model) for this task. Applications concerned about adversarial key generation can just append our proof to the RSA public key without any other modifications to existing code or cryptographic libraries. Users need only perform a one-time verification of the proof to ensure that raising to the power e is a permutation of the integers modulo N. For typical parameter settings, the proof consists of nine integers modulo N; generating the proof and verifying it both require about nine modular exponentiations.We extend our results beyond RSA keys and also provide efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge proofs for other properties of N, which can be used to certify that N is suitable for the Paillier cryptosystem, is a product of two primes, or is a Blum integer. As compared to the recent work of Auerbach and Poettering (PKC 2018), who provide two-message protocols for similar languages, our protocols are more efficient and do not require interaction, which enables a broader class of applications.

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2021
Crypto 2018