## CryptoDB

### Rishab Goyal

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

PKC

Dynamic Collusion Functional Encryption and Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption
Abstract

Functional Encryption (FE) is a powerful notion of encryp- tion which enables computations and partial message recovery of en- crypted data. In FE, each decryption key is associated with a function f such that decryption recovers the function evaluation f(m) from an encryption of m. Informally, security states that a user with access to function keys skf1 , skf2 , . . . (and so on) can only learn f1(m), f2(m), . . . (and so on) but nothing more about the message. The system is said to be q-bounded collusion resistant if the security holds as long as an adversary gets access to at most q = q(�) decryption keys.
However, until very recently, all these works studied bounded col- lusion resistance in a static model, where the collusion bound q was a global system parameter. While the static model has led to many great applications, it has major drawbacks. Recently, Agrawal et al. (Crypto 2021) and Garg et al. (Eurocrypt 2022) introduced the dynamic model for bounded collusion resistance, where the collusion bound q was a fluid parameter, not globally set, but chosen by each encryptor. The dynamic model enabled harnessing many virtues of the static model, while avoid- ing its various drawbacks. In this work, we provide a generic compiler to upgrade any FE scheme from the static model to the dynamic model.
We also extend our techniques to multi-authority attribute-based en- cryption (MA-ABE). We show that bounded collusion MA-ABE sup- porting predicates that can be represented as an e�cient computational secret sharing (CSS) scheme can be built from minimal assumptions. Ef- ficient CSS schemes are known for access structures whose characteristic function can be computed by a polynomial-size monotone circuit under the existence of one-way functions [Yao89, unpublished]. Thus, our MA- ABE construction is the first MA-ABE scheme from standard assump- tions for predicates beyond polynomial-size monotone boolean formula. Our construction also satisfies full adaptive security in the Random Or- acle Model.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Non-interactive Blind Signatures: Post-quantum and Stronger Security
Abstract

Blind signatures enable a receiver to obtain signatures on messages of its choice without revealing any message to the signer. Round-optimal blind signatures are designed as a two-round interactive protocol between a signer and receiver. Coincidentally, the choice of message is not important in many applications, and is routinely set as a random (unstructured) message by a receiver.
With the goal of designing more efficient blind signatures for such applications, Hanzlik (Eurocrypt '23) introduced a new variant called non-interactive blind signatures (NIBS). These allow a signer to asynchronously generate partial signatures for any recipient such that only the intended recipient can extract a blinded signature for a random message. This bypasses the two-round barrier for traditional blind signatures, yet enables many known applications. Hanzlik provided new practical designs for NIBS from bilinear pairings.
In this work, we propose new enhanced security properties for NIBS as well as provide multiple constructions with varying levels of security and concrete efficiency. We propose a new generic paradigm for NIBS from circuit-private leveled homomorphic encryption achieving optimal-sized signatures (i.e., same as any non-blind signature) at the cost of large public keys. We also investigate concretely efficient NIBS with post-quantum security, satisfying weaker level of privacy as proposed by Hanzlik.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Leakage-Resilient Incompressible Cryptography: Constructions and Barriers
Abstract

We introduce Leakage-Resilient Incompressible cryptography, which simultaneously addresses two variants of side-channel attacks that have been tackled in theoretical cryptography. Leakage-resilience seeks to provide security against an adversary who learns a part of the secret-key and the entire ciphertext or signature; conversely, incompressible cryptography provides security against an adversary who learns the entire secret-key, but only a part of the ciphertext or signature. However, constructions in either of these security models can fail against an attack in the other model. In this work, we define a new model of security that subsumes both leakage-resilient cryptography and incompressible cryptography, and we present several non-trivial positive and negative results.
On the positive side, first we present a transformation from incompressible symmetric-key encryption (SKE) to leakage-resilient incompressible SKE in the information-theoretic setting. Next, as one of our main results, we construct a leakage-resilient incompressible public-key encryption (PKE), combining an incompressible SKE and a new primitive that we call leakage-resilient non-committing key encapsulation mechanism (LR-NC-KEM). While an incompressible SKE suitable for use in both these constructions already exists in the literature (Dziembowski, CRYPTO 2006), we present a new construction with better parameters, using an appropriate notion of invertible extractors; this leads to corresponding improvements in the final parameters we obtain in these constructions. We also design a leakage-resilient incompressible signature scheme.
On the negative side, we show barriers to significantly improving the parameters we obtain, by showing impossibility of basing the security of such improved schemes on blackbox reductions.
Apart from the general framework and the specific results we obtain, some of the intermediate tools that we define and instantiate, like LR-NC-KEM and invertible extractors, may be of independent interest.

2024

TCC

Multi-Authority Functional Encryption with Bounded Collusions from Standard Assumptions
Abstract

Multi-Authority Functional Encryption (MAFE) [\textit{Chase, TCC'07; Lewko-Waters, Eurocrypt'11; Brakerski et al., ITCS'17}] is a popular generalization of functional encryption (FE) with the central goal of decentralizing the trust assumption from a single central trusted key authority to a group of multiple, \emph{independent and non-interacting}, key authorities. Over the last several decades, we have seen tremendous advances in new designs and constructions for FE supporting different function classes, from a variety of assumptions and with varying levels of security. Unfortunately, the same has not been replicated in the multi-authority setting. The current scope of MAFE designs is rather limited, with positive results only known for certain attribute-based functionalities or from general-purpose code obfuscation. This state-of-the-art in MAFE could be explained in part by the implication provided by Brakerski et al. (ITCS'17). It was shown that a general-purpose obfuscation scheme can be designed from any MAFE scheme for circuits, even if the MAFE scheme is secure only in a bounded-collusion model, where at most \emph{two} keys per authority get corrupted.
In this work, we revisit the problem of MAFE and show that existing implication from MAFE to obfuscation is not tight. We provide new methods to design MAFE for circuits from simple and minimal cryptographic assumptions. Our main contributions are summarized below-
\begin{enumerate}
\item We design a $\poly(\lambda)$-authority MAFE for circuits in the bounded-collusion model. Under the existence of public-key encryption, we prove it to be statically simulation-secure. Further, if we assume sub-exponential security of public-key encryption, then we prove it to be adaptively simulation-secure in the Random Oracle Model.
\item We design a $O(1)$-authority MAFE for circuits in the bounded-collusion model. Under the existence of 2-party or 3-party non-interactive key exchange and public-key encryption, we prove it to be adaptively simulation-secure.
\item We provide a new generic bootstrapping compiler for MAFE for general circuits to design a simulation-secure $(n_1 + n_2)$-authority MAFE from any two $n_1$-authority and $n_2$-authority MAFE.
\end{enumerate}

2022

EUROCRYPT

Dynamic Collusion Bounded Functional Encryption from Identity-Based Encryption
📺
Abstract

Functional Encryption is a powerful notion of encryption in which each decryption key is associated with a function f such that decryption recovers the function evaluation f(m). Informally, security states that a user with access to function keys sk_f1,sk_f2,..., (and so on) can only learn f1(m), f2(m),... (and so on) but nothing more about the message. The system is said to be q-bounded collusion resistant if the security holds as long as an adversary gets access to at most q = q(λ) function keys. A major drawback of such statically bounded collusion systems is that the collusion bound q must be declared at setup time and is fixed for the entire lifetime of the system. We initiate the study of dynamically bounded collusion resistant functional encryption systems which provide more flexibility in terms of selecting the collusion bound, while reaping the benefits of statically bounded collusion FE systems (such as quantum resistance, simulation security, and general assumptions). Briefly, the virtues of a dynamically bounded scheme can be summarized as:
-Fine-grained individualized selection: It lets each encryptor select the collusion bound by weighing the trade-off between performance
overhead and the amount of collusion resilience.
-Evolving encryption strategies: Since the system is no longer tied to a single collusion bound, thus it allows to dynamically adjust the desired collusion resilience based on any number of evolving factors such as the age of the system, or a number of active users, etc.
-Ease and simplicity of updatability: None of the system parameters have to be updated when adjusting the collusion bound. That is, the same key skf can be used to decrypt ciphertexts for collusion bound q = 2 as well as q = 2^λ.
We construct such a dynamically bounded functional encryption scheme for the class of all polynomial-size circuits under the general assumption of Identity-Based Encryption

2022

CRYPTO

Locally Verifiable Signature and Key Aggregation
Abstract

Aggregate signatures (Boneh, Gentry, Lynn, Shacham, Eu- rocrypt 2003) enable compressing a set of N signatures on N different messages into a short aggregate signature. This reduces the space com- plexity of storing the signatures from linear in N to a fixed constant (that depends only on the security parameter). However, verifying the aggregate signature requires access to all N messages, resulting in the complexity of verification being at least Ω(N).
In this work, we introduce the notion of locally verifiable aggregate signatures that enable efficient verification: given a short aggregate sig- nature σ (corresponding to a set M of N messages), the verifier can check whether a particular message m is in the set, in time independent of N. Verification does not require knowledge of the entire set M. We demon- strate many natural applications of locally verifiable aggregate signature schemes: in the context of certificate transparency logs; in blockchains; and for redacting signatures, even when all the original signatures are produced by a single user.
We provide two constructions of single-signer locally verifiable aggre- gate signatures, the first based on the RSA assumption and the second on the bilinear Diffie-Hellman inversion assumption, both in the random oracle model.
As an additional contribution, we introduce the notion of compressing cryptographic keys in identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes, show applications of this notion, and construct an IBE scheme where the secret keys for N identities can be compressed into a single aggregate key, which can then be used to decrypt ciphertexts sent to any of the N identities.

2022

TCC

Multi-Input Quadratic Functional Encryption: Stronger Security, Broader Functionality
Abstract

Multi-input functional encryption, MIFE, is a powerful generalization of functional encryption that allows computation on encrypted data coming from multiple different data sources. In a recent work, Agrawal, Goyal, and Tomida (CRYPTO 2021) constructed MIFE for the class of quadratic functions. This was the first MIFE construction from bilinear maps that went beyond inner product computation. We advance the state-of-the-art in MIFE, and propose new constructions with stronger security and broader functionality.
• Stronger Security: In the typical formulation of MIFE security, an attacker is allowed to either corrupt all or none of the users who can encrypt the data. In this work, we study MIFE security in a stronger and more natural model where we allow an attacker to corrupt any subset of the users, instead of only permitting all-or-nothing corruption. We formalize the model by providing each user a unique encryption key, and letting the attacker corrupt all non-trivial subsets of the encryption keys, while still maintaining the MIFE security for ciphertexts generated using honest keys. We construct a secure MIFE system for quadratic functions in this fine-grained corruption model from bilinear maps. Our construction departs significantly from the existing MIFE schemes as we need to tackle a more general class of attackers.
• Broader Functionality: The notion of multi-client functional encryption, MCFE, is a useful extension of MIFE. In MCFE, each encryptor can additionally tag each ciphertext with appropriate metadata such that ciphertexts with only matching metadata can be decrypted together. In more detail, each ciphertext is now annotated with a unique label such that ciphertexts encrypted for different slots can now only be combined together during decryption as long as the associated labels are an exact match for all individual ciphertexts. In this work, we upgrade our MIFE scheme to also support ciphertext labelling. While the functionality of our scheme matches that of MCFE for quadratic functions, our security guarantee falls short of the general corruption model studied for MCFE. In our model, all encryptors share a secret key, therefore this yields a secret-key version of quadratic MCFE, which we denote by SK-MCFE. We leave the problem of proving security in the general corruption model as an important open problem.

2021

CRYPTO

Multi-Input Quadratic Functional Encryption from Pairings
📺
Abstract

We construct the first multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) scheme for quadratic functions from pairings. Our construction supports polynomial number of users, where user $i$, for $i \in [n]$, encrypts input $\bfx_i \in \mbZ^m$ to obtain ciphertext $\ct_i$, the key generator provides a key $\sk_\bfc$ for vector $\bfc \in \mbZ^{({mn})^2}$ and decryption, given $\ct_1,\ldots,\ct_n$ and $\sk_\bfc$, recovers $\ip{\bfc}{\bfx \otimes \bfx}$ and nothing else. We achieve indistinguishability-based (selective) security against unbounded collusions under the standard bilateral matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption. All previous MIFE schemes either support only inner products (linear functions) or rely on strong cryptographic assumptions such as indistinguishability obfuscation or multi-linear maps.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Bounded Collusion ABE for TMs from IBE
📺
Abstract

We give an attribute-based encryption system for Turing Machines that is provably secure assuming only the existence of identity- based encryption (IBE) for large identity spaces. Currently, IBE is known to be realizable from most mainstream number theoretic assumptions that imply public key cryptography including factoring, the search Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the Learning with Errors assumption.
Our core construction provides security against an attacker that makes a single key query for a machine T before declaring a challenge string w∗ that is associated with the challenge ciphertext. We build our construction by leveraging a Garbled RAM construction of Gentry, Halevi, Raykova and Wichs; however, to prove security we need to introduce a new notion of security called iterated simulation security.
We then show how to transform our core construction into one that is secure for an a-priori bounded number q = q(\lambda) of key queries that can occur either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We do this by first showing how one can use a special type of non-committing encryption to transform a system that is secure only if a single key is chosen before the challenge ciphertext is declared into one where the single key can be requested either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We give a simple construction of this non-committing encryption from public key encryption in the Random Oracle Model. Next, one can apply standard combinatorial techniques to lift from single-key adaptive security to q-key adaptive security.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Adaptive Security via Deletion in Attribute-Based Encryption: Solutions from Search Assumptions in Bilinear Groups
📺
Abstract

One of the primary research challenges in Attribute-Based Encryption
(ABE) is constructing and proving cryptosystems that are adaptively
secure. To date the main paradigm for achieving adaptive security in
ABE is dual system encryption. However, almost all such solutions in
bilinear groups rely on (variants of) either the subgroup decision
problem over composite order groups or the decision linear assumption.
Both of these assumptions are decisional rather than search
assumptions and the target of the assumption is a source or bilinear
group element. This is in contrast to earlier selectively secure ABE
systems which can be proven secure from either the decisional or
search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this work we make
progress on closing this gap by giving a new ABE construction for the
subset functionality and prove security under the Search Bilinear
Diffie-Hellman assumption.
We first provide a framework for
proving adaptive security in Attribute-Based Encryption systems. We
introduce a concept of ABE with deletable attributes where any party
can take a ciphertext encrypted under the attribute string x in {0,
1}^n and modify it into a ciphertext encrypted under any string x'
in {0, 1, bot}^n where x' is derived by replacing any bits of
x with bot symbols (i.e. ``deleting" attributes of x). The
semantics of the system are that any private key for a circuit C can
be used to decrypt a ciphertext associated with x' if none of the
input bits read by circuit C are bot symbols and C(x') = 1.
We show a pathway for combining ABE
with deletable attributes with constrained pseudorandom functions to
obtain adaptively secure ABE building upon the recent work of
[Tsabary19]. Our new ABE system will be adaptively
secure and be a ciphertext-policy ABE that supports the same
functionality as the underlying constrained PRF as long as the PRF is
``deletion conforming". Here we also provide a simple constrained PRF
construction that gives subset functionality.
Our approach enables us to access a
broader array of Attribute-Based Encryption schemes support deletion
of attributes. For example, we show that both the [GPSW06] and [Boyen13] ABE schemes can
trivially handle a deletion operation. And, by using a hardcore bit
variant of GPSW scheme we obtain an adaptively secure ABE scheme under
the Search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in addition to
pseudo random functions in NC1. This gives the first adaptively
secure ABE from a search assumption as all prior work relied on
decision assumptions over source group elements.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Beyond Software Watermarking: Traitor-Tracing for Pseudorandom Functions
📺
Abstract

Software watermarking schemes allow a user to embed an identifier into a piece of code such that the resulting program is nearly functionally-equivalent to the original program, and yet, it is difficult to remove the identifier without destroying the functionality of the program. Such schemes are often considered for proving software ownership or for digital rights management. Existing constructions of watermarking have focused primarily on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs).
In this work, we revisit the definitional foundations of watermarking, and begin by highlighting a major flaw in existing security notions. Existing security notions for watermarking only require that the identifier be successfully extracted from programs that preserve the exact input/output behavior of the original program. In the context of PRFs, this means that an adversary that constructs a program which computes a quarter of the output bits of the PRF or that is able to distinguish the outputs of the PRF from random are considered to be outside the threat model. However, in any application (e.g., watermarking a decryption device or an authentication token) that relies on PRF security, an adversary that manages to predict a quarter of the bits or distinguishes the PRF outputs from random would be considered to have defeated the scheme. Thus, existing watermarking schemes provide very little security guarantee against realistic adversaries. None of the existing constructions of watermarkable PRFs would be able to extract the identifier from a program that only outputs a quarter of the bits of the PRF or one that perfectly distinguishes.
To address the shortcomings in existing watermarkable PRF definitions, we introduce a new primitive called a traceable PRF. Our definitions are inspired by similar definitions from public-key traitor tracing, and aim to capture a very robust set of adversaries: namely, any adversary that produces a useful distinguisher (i.e., a program that can break PRF security), can be traced to a specific identifier. We provide a general framework for constructing traceable PRFs via an intermediate primitive called private linear constrained PRFs. Finally, we show how to construct traceable PRFs from a similar set of assumptions previously used to realize software watermarking. Namely, we obtain a single-key traceable PRF from standard lattice assumptions and a fully collusion-resistant traceable PRF from indistinguishability obfuscation (together with injective one-way functions).

2021

TCC

Multi-Party Functional Encryption
📺
Abstract

We initiate the study of multi-party functional encryption (MPFE) which unifies and abstracts out various notions of functional encryption which support distributed ciphertexts or secret keys, such as multi-input FE, multi-client FE, decentralized multi-client FE, multi-authority FE, dynamic decentralized FE, adhoc multi-input FE and such others. Using our framework, we identify several gaps in the literature and provide some constructions to fill these:
1. Multi-Authority ABE with Inner Product Computation. The recent work of Abdalla et al. (ASIACRYPT’20) constructed a novel “composition” of Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) and Inner Product Functional Encryption (IPFE), namely functional encryption schemes that combine the access control functionality of attribute based encryption with the possibility of performing linear operations on the encrypted data. In this work, we extend the access control component to support the much more challenging multi-authority setting, i.e. “lift” the primitive of ABE in their construction to multi-authority ABE for the same class of access control policies (LSSS structures). This yields the first construction of a nontrivial multi-authority FE beyond ABE from simple assumptions on pairings to the best of our knowledge.
Our techniques can also be used to generalize the decentralized attribute based encryption scheme of Michalevsky and Joye (ESORICS’18) to support inner product computation on the message. While this scheme only supports inner product predicates which is less general than those supported by the Lewko-Waters (EUROCRYPT’11) construction, it supports policy hiding which the latter does not. Our extension inherits these features and is secure based on the k-linear assumption, in the random oracle model.
2. Function Hiding DDFE. The novel primitive of dynamic decentralized functional encryption (DDFE) was recently introduced by Chotard et al. (CRYPTO’20), where they also provided the first construction for inner products. However, the primitive of DDFE does not support function hiding, which is a significant limitation for several applications. In this work, we provide a new construction for inner product DDFE which supports function hiding. To achieve our final result, we define and construct the first function hiding multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) scheme for inner products, which may be of independent interest.
3. Distributed Ciphertext-Policy ABE. We provide a distributed variant of the recent ciphertext- policy attribute based encryption scheme, constructed by Agrawal and Yamada (EUROCRYPT’20). Our construction supports NC1 access policies, and is secure based on “Learning With Errors” and relies on the generic bilinear group model as well as the random oracle model.
Our new MPFE abstraction predicts meaningful new variants of functional encryption as useful targets for future work.

2020

CRYPTO

Verifiable Registration-Based Encryption
📺
Abstract

In recent work, Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, and Rahimi (TCC 2018) introduced a new encryption framework, which they referred to as Registration-Based Encryption (RBE). The central motivation behind RBE was to provide a novel methodology for solving the well-known key-escrow problem in Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) systems. Informally, in an RBE system, there is no private-key generator unlike IBE systems, but instead, it is replaced with a public key accumulator. Every user in an RBE system samples its own public-secret key pair and sends the public key to the accumulator for registration. The key accumulator has no secret state and is only responsible for compressing all the registered user identity-key pairs into a short public commitment. Here the encryptor only requires the compressed parameters along with the target identity, whereas a decryptor requires supplementary key material along with the secret key associated with the registered public key.
The initial construction by Garg et al. based on standard assumptions only provided weak efficiency properties. In a follow-up work by Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, Rahimi, and Sekar (PKC 2019), they gave an efficient RBE construction from standard assumptions. However, both these works considered the key accumulator to be honest which might be too strong an assumption in real-world scenarios. In this work, we initiate a formal study of RBE systems with malicious key accumulators. To that end, we introduce a strengthening of the RBE framework which we call Verifiable RBE (VRBE). A VRBE system additionally gives the users an extra capability to obtain short proofs from the key accumulator proving correct (and unique) registration for every registered user as well as proving non-registration for any yet unregistered identity.
We construct VRBE systems that provide succinct proofs of registration and non-registration from standard assumptions (such as CDH, Factoring, LWE). Our proof systems also naturally allow a much more efficient audit process which can be performed by any non-participating third party as well. A by-product of our approach is that we provide a more efficient RBE construction than that provided in the prior work of Garg \etal\cite{GHMRS19}. And, lastly, we initiate a study on the extension of VRBE to a wider range of access and trust structures.

2020

CRYPTO

New Constructions of Hinting PRGs, OWFs with Encryption, and more
📺
Abstract

Over the last few years, there has been a surge of new cryptographic results, including laconic oblivious
transfer, (anonymous/ hierarchical) identity-based encryption, trapdoor functions, chosen-ciphertext security transformations, designated-verifier zero-knowledge proofs, due to a beautiful framework recently introduced in the works of Cho et al. (Crypto 2017), and Dottling and Garg (Crypto 2017). The primitive of one-way function with encryption (OWFE) and its relatives (chameleon encryption, one-time signatures with encryption, hinting PRGs, trapdoor hash encryption, batch encryption) has been a centerpiece in all these results.
While there exist multiple realizations of OWFE (and its relatives) from a variety of assumptions such as CDH, Factoring, and LWE, all such constructions fall under the same general ``missing block" framework. Although this framework has been instrumental in opening up a new pathway towards various cryptographic functionalities via the abstraction of OWFE (and its relatives), it has been accompanied by undesirable inefficiencies that might inhibit a much wider adoption in many practical scenarios. Motivated by the surging importance of the OWFE abstraction (and its relatives),
a natural question to ask is whether the existing approaches can be diversified to not only obtain more constructions from different assumptions, but also in developing newer frameworks. We believe
answering this question will eventually lead to important and previously unexplored performance trade-offs in the overarching applications of this novel cryptographic paradigm.
In this work, we propose a new accumulation-style framework for building a new class of OWFE as well as hinting PRG constructions with a special focus on achieving shorter ciphertext size and shorter
public parameter size (respectively). Such performance improvements parlay into shorter parameters in their corresponding applications. Briefly, we explore the following performance trade-offs --- (1) for OWFE, our constructions outperform in terms of ciphertext size as well as encryption time, but this comes at the cost of larger evaluation and setup times, (2) for hinting PRGs, our constructions provide a rather dramatic trade-off between evaluation time versus parameter size, with our construction leading to significantly shorter public parameter size. The trade-off enabled by our hinting PRG construction also leads to interesting implications in the CPA-to-CCA transformation provided in. We also provide concrete performance measurements for our constructions and compare them with existing approaches. We believe highlighting such trade-offs will lead to wider adoption of these abstractions in a practical sense.

2020

TCC

On Perfect Correctness in (Lockable) Obfuscation
📺
Abstract

In a lockable obfuscation scheme a party takes as input a program P, a lock value alpha, a message msg, and produces an obfuscated program P'. The obfuscated program can be evaluated on an input x to learn the message msg if P(x)= alpha. The security of such schemes states that if alpha is randomly chosen (independent of P and msg), then one cannot distinguish an obfuscation of $P$ from a dummy obfuscation. Existing constructions of lockable obfuscation achieve provable security under the Learning with Errors assumption. One limitation of these constructions is that they achieve only statistical correctness and allow for a possible one-sided error where the obfuscated program could output the msg on some value x where P(x) \neq alpha.
In this work we motivate the problem of studying perfect correctness in lockable
obfuscation for the case where the party performing the obfuscation might wish
to inject a backdoor or hole in the correctness. We begin by studying the existing
constructions and identify two components that are susceptible to imperfect correctness. The first is in the LWE-based pseudo-random generators (PRGs) that are non-injective, while the second is in the last level testing procedure of the core constructions.
We address each in turn. First, we build upon previous work to design injective
PRGs that are provably secure from the LWE assumption. Next, we design an alternative last level testing procedure that has an additional structure to prevent correctness errors. We then provide surgical proof of security (to avoid redundancy) that connects our construction to the construction by Goyal, Koppula, and Waters (GKW). Specifically, we show how for a random value alpha an obfuscation under our new construction is indistinguishable from an obfuscation under the existing GKW construction.

2019

PKC

Collusion Resistant Broadcast and Trace from Positional Witness Encryption
Abstract

An emerging trend is for researchers to identify cryptography primitives for which feasibility was first established under obfuscation and then move the realization to a different setting. In this work we explore a new such avenue—to move obfuscation-based cryptography to the assumption of (positional) witness encryption. Our goal is to develop techniques and tools, which we will dub “witness encryption friendly” primitives and use these to develop a methodology for building advanced cryptography from positional witness encryption.We take a bottom up approach and pursue our general agenda by attacking the specific problem of building collusion-resistant broadcast systems with tracing from positional witness encryption. We achieve a system where the size of ciphertexts, public key and private key are polynomial in the security parameter $$\lambda $$ and independent of the number of users N in the broadcast system. Currently, systems with such parameters are only known from indistinguishability obfuscation.

2019

CRYPTO

Watermarking Public-Key Cryptographic Primitives
📺
Abstract

A software watermarking scheme enables users to embed a message or mark within a program while preserving its functionality. Moreover, it is difficult for an adversary to remove a watermark from a marked program without corrupting its behavior. Existing constructions of software watermarking from standard assumptions have focused exclusively on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs).In this work, we study watermarking public-key primitives such as the signing key of a digital signature scheme or the decryption key of a public-key (predicate) encryption scheme. While watermarking public-key primitives might intuitively seem more challenging than watermarking PRFs, our constructions only rely on simple assumptions. Our watermarkable signature scheme can be built from the minimal assumption of one-way functions while our watermarkable public-key encryption scheme can be built from most standard algebraic assumptions that imply public-key encryption (e.g., factoring, discrete log, or lattice assumptions). Our schemes also satisfy a number of appealing properties: public marking, public mark-extraction, and collusion resistance. Our schemes are the first to simultaneously achieve all of these properties.The key enabler of our new constructions is a relaxed notion of functionality-preserving. While traditionally, we require that a marked program (approximately) preserve the input/output behavior of the original program, in the public-key setting, preserving the “functionality” does not necessarily require preserving the exact input/output behavior. For instance, if we want to mark a signing algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm still output valid signatures (even if those signatures might be different from the ones output by the unmarked algorithm). Similarly, if we want to mark a decryption algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm correctly decrypt all valid ciphertexts (but may behave differently from the unmarked algorithm on invalid or malformed ciphertexts). Our relaxed notion of functionality-preserving captures the essence of watermarking and still supports the traditional applications, but provides additional flexibility to enable new and simple realizations of this powerful cryptographic notion.

2019

CRYPTO

Broadcast and Trace with
$N^{\varepsilon }$
Ciphertext Size from Standard Assumptions
📺
Abstract

We construct a broadcast and trace scheme (also known as trace and revoke or broadcast, trace and revoke) with N users, where the ciphertext size can be made as low as
$$O(N^\varepsilon )$$
, for any arbitrarily small constant
$$\varepsilon >0$$
. This improves on the prior best construction of broadcast and trace under standard assumptions by Boneh and Waters (CCS ‘06), which had ciphertext size
$$O(N^{1/2})$$
. While that construction relied on bilinear maps, ours uses a combination of the learning with errors (LWE) assumption and bilinear maps.Recall that, in both broadcast encryption and traitor-tracing schemes, there is a collection of N users, each of which gets a different secret key
$${\mathsf {sk}}_i$$
. In broadcast encryption, it is possible to create ciphertexts targeted to a subset
$$S \subseteq [N]$$
of the users such that only those users can decrypt it correctly. In a traitor tracing scheme, if a subset of users gets together and creates a decoder box D that is capable of decrypting ciphertexts, then it is possible to trace at least one of the users responsible for creating D. A broadcast and trace scheme intertwines the two properties, in a way that results in more than just their union. In particular, it ensures that if a decoder D is able to decrypt ciphertexts targeted toward a set S of users, then it should be possible to trace one of the users in the set S responsible for creating D, even if other users outside of S also participated. As of recently, we have essentially optimal broadcast encryption (Boneh, Gentry, Waters CRYPTO ’05) under bilinear maps and traitor tracing (Goyal, Koppula, Waters STOC ’18) under LWE, where the ciphertext size is at most poly-logarithmic in N. The main contribution of our paper is to carefully combine LWE and bilinear-map based components, and get them to interact with each other, to achieve broadcast and trace.

2019

TCC

New Approaches to Traitor Tracing with Embedded Identities
Abstract

In a traitor tracing (TT) system for n users, every user has his/her own secret key. Content providers can encrypt messages using a public key, and each user can decrypt the ciphertext using his/her secret key. Suppose some of the n users collude to construct a pirate decoding box. Then the tracing scheme has a special algorithm, called $$\mathsf {Trace}$$, which can identify at least one of the secret keys used to construct the pirate decoding box.Traditionally, the trace algorithm output only the ‘index’ associated with the traitors. As a result, to use such systems, either a central master authority must map the indices to actual identities, or there should be a public mapping of indices to identities. Both these options are problematic, especially if we need public tracing with anonymity of users. Nishimaki, Wichs, and Zhandry (NWZ) [Eurocrypt 2016] addressed this problem by constructing a traitor tracing scheme where the identities of users are embedded in the secret keys, and the trace algorithm, given a decoding box D, can recover the entire identities of the traitors. We call such schemes ‘Embedded Identity Traitor Tracing’ schemes. NWZ constructed such schemes based on adaptively secure functional encryption (FE). Currently, the only known constructions of FE schemes are based on nonstandard assumptions such as multilinear maps and iO.In this work, we study the problem of embedded identities TT based on standard assumptions. We provide a range of constructions based on different assumptions such as public key encryption (PKE), bilinear maps and the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption. The different constructions have different efficiency trade offs. In our PKE based construction, the ciphertext size grows linearly with the number of users; the bilinear maps based construction has sub-linear ($$\sqrt{n}$$) sized ciphertexts. Both these schemes have public tracing. The LWE based scheme is a private tracing scheme with optimal ciphertexts (i.e., $$\log (n)$$). Finally, we also present other notions of traitor tracing, and discuss how they can be build in a generic manner from our base embedded identity TT scheme.

2018

CRYPTO

Risky Traitor Tracing and New Differential Privacy Negative Results
Abstract

In this work we seek to construct collusion-resistant traitor tracing systems with small ciphertexts from standard assumptions that also move toward practical efficiency. In our approach we will hold steadfast to the principle of collusion resistance, but relax the requirement on catching a traitor from a successful decoding algorithm. We define a f-risky traitor tracing system as one where the probability of identifying a traitor is $$f(\lambda ,n)$$f(λ,n) times the probability a successful box is produced. We then go on to show how to build such systems from prime order bilinear groups with assumptions close to those used in prior works. Our core system achieves, for any $$k > 0$$k>0, $$f(\lambda ,n) \approx \frac{k}{n + k - 1}$$f(λ,n)≈kn+k-1 where ciphertexts consists of $$(k + 4)$$(k+4) group elements and decryption requires $$(k + 3)$$(k+3) pairing operations.At first glance the utility of such a system might seem questionable since the f we achieve for short ciphertexts is relatively small. Indeed an attacker in such a system can more likely than not get away with producing a decoding box. However, we believe this approach to be viable for four reasons:1.A risky traitor tracing system will provide deterrence against risk averse attackers. In some settings the consequences of being caught might bear a high cost and an attacker will have to weigh his utility of producing a decryption D box against the expected cost of being caught.2.Consider a broadcast system where we want to support low overhead broadcast encrypted communications, but will periodically allow for a more expensive key refresh operation. We refer to an adversary produced algorithm that maintains the ability to decrypt across key refreshes as a persistent decoder. We show how if we employ a risky traitor tracing systems in this setting, even for a small f, we can amplify the chances of catching such a “persistent decoder” to be negligibly close to 1.3.In certain resource constrained settings risky traitor tracing provides a best tracing effort where there are no other collusion-resistant alternatives. For instance, suppose we had to support 100 K users over a radio link that had just 10 KB of additional resources for extra ciphertext overhead. None of the existing $$\sqrt{N}$$N bilinear map systems can fit in these constraints. On the other hand a risky traitor tracing system provides a spectrum of tracing probability versus overhead tradeoffs and can be configured to at least give some deterrence in this setting.4.Finally, we can capture impossibility results for differential privacy from $$\frac{1}{n}$$1n-risky traitor tracing. Since our ciphertexts are short ($$O(\lambda )$$O(λ)), we get the negative result which matches what one would get plugging in the obfuscation based tracing system Boneh-Zhandry [9] solution into the prior impossibility result of Dwork et al. [14].

2017

EUROCRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2024
- Eurocrypt 2023
- PKC 2022
- TCC 2022
- TCC 2021
- Eurocrypt 2020

#### Coauthors

- Shweta Agrawal (3)
- Foteini Baldimtsi (1)
- Kaartik Bhushan (1)
- Jiaqi Cheng (1)
- Rachit Garg (2)
- Vipul Goyal (1)
- Rishab Goyal (25)
- Susan Hohenberger (1)
- Sam Kim (2)
- Venkata Koppula (8)
- Jiahui Liu (1)
- George Lu (2)
- Nathan Manohar (1)
- Varun Narayanan (1)
- Manoj Prabhakaran (1)
- Willy Quach (1)
- Mahesh Sreekumar Rajasree (1)
- Andrew Russell (1)
- Habeeb Syed (1)
- Junichi Tomida (3)
- Vinod Vaikuntanathan (1)
- Satyanarayana Vusirikala (4)
- Brent Waters (15)
- Daniel Wichs (1)
- David J. Wu (2)
- Aayush Yadav (1)
- Saikumar Yadugiri (1)