International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Chris Peikert

Affiliation: University of Michigan--Ann Arbor

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
CRYPTO
Noninteractive Zero Knowledge for NP from (Plain) Learning with Errors 📺
Chris Peikert Sina Shiehian
We finally close the long-standing problem of constructing a noninteractive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof system for any NP language with security based on the plain Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, and thereby on worst-case lattice problems. Our proof system instantiates the framework recently developed by Canetti et al.  [EUROCRYPT’18], Holmgren and Lombardi [FOCS’18], and Canetti et al.  [STOC’19] for soundly applying the Fiat–Shamir transform using a hash function family that is correlation intractable for a suitable class of relations. Previously, such hash families were based either on “exotic” assumptions (e.g., indistinguishability obfuscation or optimal hardness of certain LWE variants) or, more recently, on the existence of circularly secure fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). However, none of these assumptions are known to be implied by plain LWE or worst-case hardness.Our main technical contribution is a hash family that is correlation intractable for arbitrary size-S circuits, for any polynomially bounded S, based on plain LWE (with small polynomial approximation factors). The construction combines two novel ingredients: a correlation-intractable hash family for log-depth circuits based on LWE (or even the potentially harder Short Integer Solution problem), and a “bootstrapping” transform that uses (leveled) FHE to promote correlation intractability for the FHE decryption circuit to arbitrary (bounded) circuits. Our construction can be instantiated in two possible “modes,” yielding a NIZK that is either computationally sound and statistically zero knowledge in the common random string model, or vice-versa in the common reference string model.
2018
PKC
New (and Old) Proof Systems for Lattice Problems
We continue the study of statistical zero-knowledge (SZK) proofs, both interactive and noninteractive, for computational problems on point lattices. We are particularly interested in the problem $$\textsf {GapSPP}$$GapSPP of approximating the $$\varepsilon $$ε-smoothing parameter (for some $$\varepsilon < 1/2$$ε<1/2) of an n-dimensional lattice. The smoothing parameter is a key quantity in the study of lattices, and $$\textsf {GapSPP}$$GapSPP has been emerging as a core problem in lattice-based cryptography, e.g., in worst-case to average-case reductions. We show that $$\textsf {GapSPP}$$GapSPP admits SZK proofs for remarkably low approximation factors, improving on prior work by up to roughly $$\sqrt{n}$$n. Specifically:There is a noninteractive SZK proof for $$O(\log (n) \sqrt{\log (1/\varepsilon )})$$O(log(n)log(1/ε))-approximate $$\textsf {GapSPP}$$GapSPP. Moreover, for any negligible $$\varepsilon $$ε and a larger approximation factor $$\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n \log (1/\varepsilon )})$$O~(nlog(1/ε)), there is such a proof with an efficient prover.There is an (interactive) SZK proof with an efficient prover for $$O(\log n + \sqrt{\log (1/\varepsilon )/\log n})$$O(logn+log(1/ε)/logn)-approximate coGapSPP. We show this by proving that $$O(\log n)$$O(logn)-approximate $$\textsf {GapSPP}$$GapSPP is in $$\mathsf {coNP} $$coNP. In addition, we give an (interactive) SZK proof with an efficient prover for approximating the lattice covering radius to within an $$O(\sqrt{n})$$O(n) factor, improving upon the prior best factor of $$\omega (\sqrt{n \log n})$$ω(nlogn).
2018
PKC
Privately Constraining and Programming PRFs, the LWE Way
Chris Peikert Sina Shiehian
Constrained pseudorandom functions allow for delegating “constrained” secret keys that let one compute the function at certain authorized inputs—as specified by a constraining predicate—while keeping the function value at unauthorized inputs pseudorandom. In the constraint-hiding variant, the constrained key hides the predicate. On top of this, programmable variants allow the delegator to explicitly set the output values yielded by the delegated key for a particular set of unauthorized inputs.Recent years have seen rapid progress on applications and constructions of these objects for progressively richer constraint classes, resulting most recently in constraint-hiding constrained PRFs for arbitrary polynomial-time constraints from Learning With Errors (LWE) [Brakerski, Tsabary, Vaikuntanathan, and Wee, TCC’17], and privately programmable PRFs from indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) [Boneh, Lewi, and Wu, PKC’17].In this work we give a unified approach for constructing both of the above kinds of PRFs from LWE with subexponential $$\exp (n^{\varepsilon })$$exp(nε) approximation factors. Our constructions follow straightforwardly from a new notion we call a shift-hiding shiftable function, which allows for deriving a key for the sum of the original function and any desired hidden shift function. In particular, we obtain the first privately programmable PRFs from non-iO assumptions.
2017
TCC
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2016
TCC
2015
JOFC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
FSE
2013
CRYPTO
2013
CRYPTO
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
PKC
2012
JOFC
Bonsai Trees, or How to Delegate a Lattice Basis
We introduce a new lattice-based cryptographic structure called a bonsai tree, and use it to resolve some important open problems in the area. Applications of bonsai trees include an efficient, stateless ‘hash-and-sign’ signature scheme in the standard model (i.e., no random oracles), and the first hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme (also in the standard model) that does not rely on bilinear pairings. Interestingly, the abstract properties of bonsai trees seem to have no known realization in conventional number-theoretic cryptography.
2011
CRYPTO
2010
TCC
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EPRINT
An Efficient and Parallel Gaussian Sampler for Lattices
Chris Peikert
At the heart of many recent lattice-based cryptographic schemes is a polynomial-time algorithm that, given a `high-quality' basis, generates a lattice point according to a Gaussian-like distribution. Unlike most other operations in lattice-based cryptography, however, the known algorithm for this task (due to Gentry, Peikert, and Vaikuntanathan; STOC 2008) is rather inefficient, and is inherently sequential. We present a new Gaussian sampling algorithm for lattices that is \emph{efficient} and \emph{highly parallelizable}. We also show that in most cryptographic applications, the algorithm's efficiency comes at almost no cost in asymptotic security. At a high level, our algorithm resembles the ``perturbation'' heuristic proposed as part of NTRUSign (Hoffstein \etal, CT-RSA 2003), though the details are quite different. To our knowledge, this is the first algorithm and rigorous analysis demonstrating the security of a perturbation-like technique.
2009
TCC
2009
CRYPTO
2008
FSE
2008
EPRINT
Generating Shorter Bases for Hard Random Lattices
Joël Alwen Chris Peikert
We revisit the problem of generating a ``hard'' random lattice together with a basis of relatively short vectors. This problem has gained in importance lately due to new cryptographic schemes that use such a procedure for generating public/secret key pairs. In these applications, a shorter basis directly corresponds to milder underlying complexity assumptions and smaller key sizes. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, using the \emph{Hermite normal form} as an organizing principle, we simplify and generalize an approach due to Ajtai (ICALP 1999). Second, we improve the construction and its analysis in several ways, most notably by tightening the length of the output basis essentially to the optimum value.
2008
CRYPTO
2008
CRYPTO
2008
EPRINT
Public-Key Cryptosystems from the Worst-Case Shortest Vector Problem
Chris Peikert
We construct public-key cryptosystems that are secure assuming the \emph{worst-case} hardness of approximating the length of a shortest nonzero vector in an $n$-dimensional lattice to within a small $\poly(n)$ factor. Prior cryptosystems with worst-case connections were based either on the shortest vector problem for a \emph{special class} of lattices (Ajtai and Dwork, STOC 1997; Regev, J.~ACM 2004), or on the conjectured hardness of lattice problems for \emph{quantum} algorithms (Regev, STOC 2005). Our main technical innovation is a reduction from certain variants of the shortest vector problem to corresponding versions of the ``learning with errors'' ($\lwe$) problem; previously, only a \emph{quantum} reduction of this kind was known. In addition, we construct new cryptosystems based on the \emph{search} version of $\lwe$, including a very natural \emph{chosen ciphertext-secure} system that has a much simpler description and tighter underlying worst-case approximation factor than prior constructions.
2007
EPRINT
Lossy Trapdoor Functions and Their Applications
Chris Peikert Brent Waters
We propose a new general primitive called lossy trapdoor functions (lossy TDFs), and realize it under a variety of different number theoretic assumptions, including hardness of the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem and the worst-case hardness of standard lattice problems. Using lossy TDFs, we develop a new approach for constructing many important cryptographic primitives, including standard trapdoor functions, CCA-secure cryptosystems, collision-resistant hash functions, and more. All of our constructions are simple, efficient, and black-box. Taken all together, these results resolve some long-standing open problems in cryptography. They give the first known (injective) trapdoor functions based on problems not directly related to integer factorization, and provide the first known CCA-secure cryptosystem based solely on worst-case lattice assumptions.
2007
EPRINT
A Framework for Efficient and Composable Oblivious Transfer
We propose and simple, general, and unified framework for constructing oblivious transfer (OT) protocols that are \emph{efficient}, \emph{universally composable}, and \emph{generally realizable} from a variety of standard number-theoretic assumptions, such as the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption and the Quadratic Residuosity assumption. Most interestingly, we can also instantiate our framework with \emph{worst-case} complexity assumptions relating to \emph{lattices}. Our OT protocols are round-optimal (one message each way), efficient in the parties' communication and local computation, and use only one reference string for an unbounded number of executions. Furthermore, the protocols can provide \emph{unconditional} security to either the sender or receiver, simply by changing the distribution of the reference string. (For several versions of the protocol, even a common \emph{random} string suffices.) One of our key technical contributions is a simple and novel abstraction that we call a \emph{dual-mode} cryptosystem. We implement dual-mode cryptosystems by taking a unified view of several cryptosystems in the literature that have what we call ``message-lossy'' public keys, whose defining property is that a ciphertext produced under such a key carries \emph{no information} (even statistically) about the encrypted message. As a contribution of independent interest, we also provide a multi-bit version of Regev's lattice-based cryptosystem (STOC 2005) whose time and space efficiency are improved by a linear factor. In particular, the amortized runtime per message bit is only $\tilde{O}(n)$ bit operations, and the ciphertext expansion can be made as small as a constant.
2007
EPRINT
Trapdoors for Hard Lattices and New Cryptographic Constructions
We show how to construct a variety of ``trapdoor'' cryptographic tools assuming the worst-case hardness of standard lattice problems (such as approximating the shortest nonzero vector to within small factors). The applications include trapdoor functions with \emph{preimage sampling}, simple and efficient ``hash-and-sign'' digital signature schemes, universally composable oblivious transfer, and identity-based encryption. A core technical component of our constructions is an efficient algorithm that, given a basis of an arbitrary lattice, samples lattice points from a Gaussian-like probability distribution whose standard deviation is essentially the length of the longest vector in the basis. In particular, the crucial security property is that the output distribution of the algorithm is oblivious to the particular geometry of the given basis.
2006
TCC
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Lattices that Admit Logarithmic Worst-Case to Average-Case Connection Factors
Chris Peikert Alon Rosen
We demonstrate an \emph{average-case} problem which is as hard as finding $\gamma(n)$-approximate shortest vectors in certain $n$-dimensional lattices in the \emph{worst case}, where $\gamma(n) = O(\sqrt{\log n})$. The previously best known factor for any class of lattices was $\gamma(n) = \tilde{O}(n)$. To obtain our results, we focus on families of lattices having special algebraic structure. Specifically, we consider lattices that correspond to \emph{ideals} in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. The worst-case assumption we rely on is that in some $\ell_p$ length, it is hard to find approximate shortest vectors in these lattices, under an appropriate form of preprocessing of the number field. Our results build upon prior works by Micciancio (FOCS 2002), Peikert and Rosen (TCC 2006), and Lyubashevsky and Micciancio (ICALP 2006). For the connection factors $\gamma(n)$ we achieve, the corresponding \emph{decisional} promise problems on ideal lattices are \emph{not} known to be NP-hard; in fact, they are in P. However, the \emph{search} approximation problems still appear to be very hard. Indeed, ideal lattices are well-studied objects in computational number theory, and the best known algorithms for them seem to perform \emph{no better} than the best known algorithms for general lattices. To obtain the best possible connection factor, we instantiate our constructions with infinite families of number fields having constant \emph{root discriminant}. Such families are known to exist and are computable, though no efficient construction is yet known. Our work motivates the search for such constructions. Even constructions of number fields having root discriminant up to $O(n^{2/3-\epsilon})$ would yield connection factors better than the current best of~$\tilde{O}(n)$.
2005
TCC
2005
EPRINT
On Error Correction in the Exponent
Chris Peikert
Given a corrupted word $\w = (w_1, \ldots, w_n)$ from a Reed-Solomon code of distance $d$, there are many ways to efficiently find and correct its errors. But what if we are instead given $(g^{w_1}, \ldots, g^{w_n})$ where $g$ generates some large cyclic group --- can the errors still be corrected efficiently? This problem is called \emph{error correction in the exponent}, and though it arises naturally in many areas of cryptography, it has received little attention. We first show that \emph{unique decoding} and \emph{list decoding} in the exponent are no harder than the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) problem in the same group. The remainder of our results are negative: * Under mild assumptions on the parameters, we show that \emph{bounded-distance decoding} in the exponent, under $e=d-k^{1-\epsilon}$ errors for any $\epsilon > 0$, is as hard as the discrete logarithm problem in the same group. * For \emph{generic} algorithms (as defined by Shoup, Eurocrypt 1997) that treat the group as a ``black-box,'' we show lower bounds for decoding that exactly match known algorithms. Our generic lower bounds also extend to decisional variants of the decoding problem, and to groups in which the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem is easy. This suggests that hardness of decoding in the exponent is a qualitatively new assumption that lies ``between'' the DDH and CDH assumptions.
2001
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

Crypto 2019
TCC 2018
Eurocrypt 2017
TCC 2017
TCC 2015
PKC 2015
Crypto 2014
TCC 2014
PKC 2013
Crypto 2012
TCC 2011
Asiacrypt 2011
Eurocrypt 2011
Crypto 2009
TCC 2008