International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Paul Bunn


Anonymous Permutation Routing
The Non-Interactive Anonymous Router (NIAR) model was introduced by Shi and Wu \cite{SW21} as an alternative to conventional solutions to the anonymous routing problem, in which a set of senders wish to send messages to a set of receivers. In contrast to most known approaches to support anonymous routing (e.g. mix-nets, DC-nets, etc.), which rely on a network of routers communicating with users via interactive protocols, the NIAR model assumes a *single* router and is inherently *non-interactive* (after an initial setup phase). In addition to being non-interactive, the NIAR model is compelling due to the security it provides: instead of relying on the honesty of some subset of the routers, the NIAR model requires anonymity even if the router (as well as an arbitrary subset of senders/receivers) is corrupted by an honest-but-curious adversary. In this paper, we present a protocol for the NIAR model that improves upon the results from \cite{SW21} in two ways: - Improved computational efficiency (quadratic to near linear): Our protocol matches the communication complexity of \cite{SW21} for each sender/receiver, while reducing the computational overhead for the router to polylog overhead instead of linear overhead. - Relaxation of assumptions: Security of the protocol in \cite{SW21} relies on the Decisional Linear assumption in bilinear groups; while security for our protocol follows from the existence of any rate-1 oblivious transfer (OT) protocol (instantiations of which are known to exist under the DDH, QR and LWE assumptions \cite{DGI19,GHO20}).
CNF-FSS and its Applications 📺
Function Secret Sharing (FSS), introduced by Boyle, Gilboa and Ishai~\cite{BGI15}, extends the classical notion of secret-sharing a \textit{value} to secret sharing a \textit{function}. Namely, for a secret function $f$ (from a class $\cal F$), FSS provides a sharing of $f$ whereby {\em succinct} shares (``keys'') are distributed to a set of parties, so that later the parties can non-interactively compute an additive sharing of $f(x)$, for any input $x$ in the domain of $f$. Previous work on FSS concentrated mostly on the two-party case, where highly efficient schemes are obtained for some simple, yet extremely useful, classes $\cal F$ (in particular, FSS for the class of point functions, a task referred to as DPF~--~Distributed Point Functions~\cite{GI14,BGI15}). In this paper, we concentrate on the multi-party case, with $p\ge 3$ parties and $t$-security ($1\le t<p$). First, we introduce the notion of \textsf{CNF-DPF} (or, more generally, \textsf{CNF-FSS}), where the scheme uses the CNF version of secret sharing (rather than additive sharing) to share each value $f(x)$. We then demonstrate the utility of CNF-DPF by providing several applications. Our main result shows how CNF-DPF can be used to achieve substantial asymptotic improvement in communication complexity when using it as a building block for constructing {\em standard} $(t,p)$-DPF protocols that tolerate $t>1$ (semi-honest) corruptions (of the $p$ parties). For example, we build a 2-out-of-5 secure (standard) DPF scheme of communication complexity $O(N^{1/4})$, where $N$ is the domain size of $f$ (compared with the current best-known of $O(N^{1/2})$ for $(2,5)$-DPF). More generally, with $p>dt$ parties, we give a $(t,p)$-DPF whose communication grows as $O(N^{1/2d})$ (rather than $O(\sqrt{N})$ that follows from the $(p-1,p)$-DPF scheme of \cite{BGI15}). We also present a 1-out-of-3 secure CNF-DPF scheme, in which each party holds two of the three keys, with poly-logarithmic communication complexity. These results have immediate implications to scenarios where (multi-server) DPF was shown to be applicable. For example, we show how to use such a scheme to obtain asymptotic improvement ($O(\log^2N)$ versus $O(\sqrt{N})$) in communication complexity over the 3-party protocol of~\cite{BKKO20}.
Oblivious Sampling with Applications to Two-Party k-Means Clustering
Paul Bunn Rafail Ostrovsky
The k -means clustering problem is one of the most explored problems in data mining. With the advent of protocols that have proven to be successful in performing single database clustering, the focus has shifted in recent years to the question of how to extend the single database protocols to a multiple database setting. To date, there have been numerous attempts to create specific multiparty k -means clustering protocols that protect the privacy of each database, but according to the standard cryptographic definitions of “privacy-protection”, so far all such attempts have fallen short of providing adequate privacy. In this paper, we describe a Two-Party k -Means Clustering Protocol that guarantees privacy against an honest-but-curious adversary, and is more efficient than utilizing a general multiparty “compiler” to achieve the same task. In particular, a main contribution of our result is a way to compute efficiently multiple iterations of k -means clustering without revealing the intermediate values. To achieve this, we describe a technique for performing two-party division securely and also introduce a novel technique allowing two parties to securely sample uniformly at random from an unknown domain size. The resulting Division Protocol and Random Value Protocol are of use to any protocol that requires the secure computation of a quotient or random sampling. Our techniques can be realized based on the existence of any semantically secure homomorphic encryption scheme. For concreteness, we describe our protocol based on Paillier Homomorphic Encryption scheme (see Paillier in Advances in: cryptology EURO-CRYPT’99 proceedings, LNCS 1592, pp 223–238, 1999). We will also demonstrate that our protocol is efficient in terms of communication, remaining competitive with existing protocols (such as Jagannathan and Wright in: KDD’05, pp 593–599, 2005) that fail to protect privacy.