International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Vinod Prabhakaran


Zero-Communication Reductions 📺
We introduce a new primitive in information-theoretic cryptography, namely zero-communication reductions (ZCR), with different levels of security. We relate ZCR to several other important primitives, and obtain new results on upper and lower bounds. In particular, we obtain new upper bounds for PSM, CDS and OT complexity of functions, which are exponential in the information complexity of the functions. These upper bounds complement the results of Beimel et al. (2014) which broke the circuit-complexity barrier for ``high complexity'' functions; our results break the barrier of input size for ``low complexity'' functions. We also show that lower bounds on secure ZCR can be used to establish lower bounds for OT-complexity. We recover the known (linear) lower bounds on OT-complexity by Beimal and Malkin (2004) via this new route. We also formulate the lower bound problem for secure ZCR in purely linear-algebraic terms, by defining the invertible rank of a matrix. We present an Invertible Rank Conjecture, proving which will establish super-linear lower bounds for OT-complexity (and if accompanied by an explicit construction, will provide explicit functions with super-linear circuit lower bounds).
Cryptography from One-Way Communication: On Completeness of Finite Channels 📺
Garg et al. (Crypto 2015) initiated the study of cryptographic protocols over noisy channels in the non-interactive setting, namely when only one party speaks. A major question left open by this work is the completeness of {\em finite} channels, whose input and output alphabets do not grow with the desired level of security. In this work, we address this question by obtaining the following results: Completeness of Bit-ROT with Inverse Polynomial Error: We show that bit-ROT (i.e., Randomized Oblivious Transfer channel, where each of the two messages is a single bit) can be used to realize general randomized functionalities with inverse polynomial error. Towards this, we provide a construction of string-ROT from bit-ROT with inverse polynomial error. No Finite Channel is Complete with Negligible Error: To complement the above, we show that {\it no} finite channel can be used to realize string-ROT with negligible error, implying that the inverse polynomial error in the completeness of bit-ROT is inherent. This holds even with semi-honest parties and for computational security, and is contrasted with the (negligible-error) completeness of string-ROT shown by Garg et al. Characterization of Finite Channels Enabling Zero-Knowledge Proofs: An important instance of secure computation is zero-knowledge proofs. Noisy channels can potentially be used to realize truly non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, without trusted common randomness, and with non-transferability and deniability features that cannot be realized in the plain model. Garg et al. obtain such zero-knowledge proofs from the binary erasure channel (BEC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). We complete the picture by showing that in fact any non-trivial channel suffices.