## CryptoDB

### Damien Vergnaud

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

TCHES

Exploiting Intermediate Value Leakage in Dilithium: A Template-Based Approach
Abstract

This paper presents a new profiling side-channel attack on CRYSTALSDilithium, the new NIST primary standard for quantum-safe digital signatures. An open source implementation of CRYSTALS-Dilithium is already available, with constant-time property as a consideration for side-channel resilience. However, this implementation does not protect against attacks that exploit intermediate data leakage. We show how to exploit a new leakage on a vector generated during the signing process, for which the costly protection by masking is still a matter of debate. With a corpus of 700 000 messages, we design a template attack that enables us to efficiently predict whether a given coefficient in one coordinate of this vector is zero or not. By gathering signatures and being able to make the correct predictions for each index, and then using linear algebra methods, this paper demonstrates that one can recover part of the secret key that is sufficient to produce universal forgeries. While our paper deeply discusses the theoretical attack path, it also demonstrates the validity of the assumption regarding the required leakage model from practical experiments with the reference implementation on an ARM Cortex-M4. We need approximately a day to collect enough representatives and one more day to perform the traces acquisition on our target.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Zero-Knowledge Protocols for the Subset Sum Problem from MPC-in-the-Head with Rejection
📺
Abstract

We propose (honest verifier) zero-knowledge arguments for the modular subset sum problem. Previous combinatorial approaches, notably one due to Shamir, yield arguments with cubic communication complexity (in the security parameter). More recent methods, based on the MPC-in-the-head technique, also produce arguments with cubic communication complexity.
We improve this approach by using a secret-sharing over small integers (rather than modulo q) to reduce the size of the arguments and remove the prime modulus restriction. Since this sharing may reveal information on the secret subset, we introduce the idea of rejection to the MPC-in-the-head paradigm. Special care has to be taken to balance completeness and soundness and preserve zero-knowledge of our arguments. We combine this idea with two techniques to prove that the secret vector (which selects the subset) is well made of binary coordinates.
Our new protocols achieve an asymptotic improvement by producing arguments of quadratic size. This improvement is also practical: for a 256-bit modulus q, the best variant of our protocols yields 13KB arguments while previous proposals gave 1180KB arguments, for the best general protocol, and 122KB, for the best protocol restricted to prime modulus. Our techniques can also be applied to vectorial variants of the subset sum problem and in particular the inhomogeneous short integer solution (ISIS) problem for which they provide an efficient alternative to state-of-the-art protocols when the underlying ring is not small and NTT-friendly. We also show the application of our protocol to build efficient zero-knowledge arguments of plaintext and/or key knowledge in the context of fully-homomorphic encryption. When applied to the TFHE scheme, the obtained arguments are more than 20 times smaller than those obtained with previous protocols. Eventually, we use our technique to construct an efficient digital signature scheme based on a pseudo-random function due to Boneh, Halevi, and Howgrave-Graham.

2021

TCHES

Probing Security through Input-Output Separation and Revisited Quasilinear Masking
📺
Abstract

The probing security model is widely used to formally prove the security of masking schemes. Whenever a masked implementation can be proven secure in this model with a reasonable leakage rate, it is also provably secure in a realistic leakage model known as the noisy leakage model. This paper introduces a new framework for the composition of probing-secure circuits. We introduce the security notion of input-output separation (IOS) for a refresh gadget. From this notion, one can easily compose gadgets satisfying the classical probing security notion –which does not ensure composability on its own– to obtain a region probing secure circuit. Such a circuit is secure against an adversary placing up to t probes in each gadget composing the circuit, which ensures a tight reduction to the more realistic noisy leakage model. After introducing the notion and proving our composition theorem, we compare our approach to the composition approaches obtained with the (Strong) Non-Interference (S/NI) notions as well as the Probe-Isolating Non-Interference (PINI) notion. We further show that any uniform SNI gadget achieves the IOS security notion, while the converse is not true. We further describe a refresh gadget achieving the IOS property for any linear sharing with a quasilinear complexity Θ(n log n) and a O(1/ log n) leakage rate (for an n-size sharing). This refresh gadget is a simplified version of the quasilinear SNI refresh gadget proposed by Battistello, Coron, Prouff, and Zeitoun (ePrint 2016). As an application of our composition framework, we revisit the quasilinear-complexity masking scheme of Goudarzi, Joux and Rivain (Asiacrypt 2018). We improve this scheme by generalizing it to any base field (whereas the original proposal only applies to field with nth powers of unity) and by taking advantage of our composition approach. We further patch a flaw in the original security proof and extend it from the random probing model to the stronger region probing model. Finally, we present some application of this extended quasilinear masking scheme to AES and MiMC and compare the obtained performances.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Dynamic Random Probing Expansion with Quasi Linear Asymptotic Complexity
📺
Abstract

The masking countermeasure is widely used to protect cryptographic implementations against side-channel attacks. While many masking schemes are shown to be secure in the widely deployed probing model, the latter raised a number of concerns regarding its relevance in practice. Offering the adversary the knowledge of a fixed number of intermediate variables, it does not capture the so-called horizontal attacks which exploit the repeated manipulation of sensitive variables. Therefore, recent works have focused on the random probing model in which each computed variable leaks with some given probability p. This model benefits from fitting better the reality of the embedded devices. In particular, Belaïd, Coron, Prouff, Rivain, and Taleb (CRYPTO 2020) introduced a framework to generate random probing circuits. Their compiler somehow extends base gadgets as soon as they satisfy a notion called random probing expandability (RPE). A subsequent work from Belaïd, Rivain, and Taleb (EUROCRYPT 2021) went a step forward with tighter properties and improved complexities. In particular, their construction reaches a complexity of O(κ^{3.9}), for a κ-bit security, while tolerating a leakage probability of p = 2^{−7.5}.
In this paper, we generalize the random probing expansion approach by considering a dynamic choice of the base gadgets at each step in the expansion. This approach makes it possible to use gadgets with high number of shares –which enjoy better asymptotic complexity in the expansion framework– while still tolerating the best leakage rate usually obtained for small gadgets. We investigate strategies for the choice of the sequence of compilers and show that it can reduce the complexity of an AES implementation by a factor 10. We also significantly improve the asymptotic complexity of the expanding compiler by exhibiting new asymptotic gadget constructions. Specifically, we introduce RPE gadgets for linear operations featuring a quasi-linear complexity, as well as, an RPE multiplication gadget with linear number of multiplications. These new gadgets drop the complexity of the expanding compiler from quadratic to quasi-linear.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Public-Key Generation with Verifiable Randomness
📺
Abstract

We revisit the problem of proving that a user algorithm selected and correctly used a truly random seed in the generation of her cryptographic key. A first approach was proposed in 2002 by Juels and Guajardo for the validation of RSA secret keys. We present a new security model and general tools to efficiently prove that a private key was generated at random according to a prescribed process, without revealing any further information about the private key.
We give a generic protocol for all key-generation algorithms based on probabilistic circuits and prove its security. We also propose a new protocol for factoring-based cryptography that we prove secure in the aforementioned model. This latter relies on a new efficient zero-knowledge argument for the double discrete logarithm problem that achieves an exponential improvement in communication complexity compared to the state of the art, and is of independent interest.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Succinct Diophantine-Satisfiability Arguments
📺
Abstract

A Diophantine equation is a multi-variate polynomial equation with integer coefficients and it is satisfiable if it has a solution with all unknowns taking integer values. Davis, Putnam, Robinson and Matiyasevich showed that the general Diophantine satisfiability problem is undecidable (giving a negative answer to Hilbert's tenth problem) but it is nevertheless possible to argue in zero-knowledge the knowledge of a solution, if a solution is known to a prover.
We provide the first succinct honest-verifier zero-knowledge argument for the satisfiability of Diophantine equations with a communication complexity and a round complexity that grows logarithmically in the size of the polynomial equation. The security of our argument relies on standard assumptions on hidden-order groups. As the argument requires to commit to integers, we introduce a new integer-commitment scheme that has much smaller parameters than Damgard and Fujisaki's scheme. We finally show how to succinctly argue knowledge of solutions to several NP-complete problems and cryptographic problems by encoding them as Diophantine equations.

2019

TCC

Lower and Upper Bounds on the Randomness Complexity of Private Computations of AND
Abstract

We consider multi-party information-theoretic private protocols, and specifically their randomness complexity. The randomness complexity of private protocols is of interest both because random bits are considered a scarce resource, and because of the relation between that complexity measure and other complexity measures of boolean functions such as the circuit size or the sensitivity of the function being computed [12, 17].More concretely, we consider the randomness complexity of the basic boolean function and, that serves as a building block in the design of many private protocols. We show that and cannot be privately computed using a single random bit, thus giving the first non-trivial lower bound on the 1-private randomness complexity of an explicit boolean function, $$f: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$$. We further show that the function and, on any number of inputs n (one input bit per player), can be privately computed using 8 random bits (and 7 random bits in the special case of $$n=3$$ players), improving the upper bound of 73 random bits implicit in [17]. Together with our lower bound, we thus approach the exact determination of the randomness complexity of and. To the best of our knowledge, the exact randomness complexity of private computation is not known for any explicit function (except for xor, which is trivially 1-random, and for several degenerate functions).

2017

TOSC

Security of Even-Mansour Ciphers under Key-Dependent Messages
Abstract

The iterated Even–Mansour (EM) ciphers form the basis of many blockcipher designs. Several results have established their security in the CPA/CCA models, under related-key attacks, and in the indifferentiability framework. In this work, we study the Even–Mansour ciphers under key-dependent message (KDM) attacks. KDM security is particularly relevant for blockciphers since non-expanding mechanisms are convenient in setting such as full disk encryption (where various forms of key-dependency might exist). We formalize the folklore result that the ideal cipher is KDM secure. We then show that EM ciphers meet varying levels of KDM security depending on the number of rounds and permutations used. One-round EM achieves some form of KDM security, but this excludes security against offsets of keys. With two rounds we obtain KDM security against offsets, and using different round permutations we achieve KDM security against all permutation-independent claw-free functions. As a contribution of independent interest, we present a modular framework that can facilitate the security treatment of symmetric constructions in models that allow for correlated inputs.

2017

CHES

Generalized Polynomial Decomposition for S-boxes with Application to Side-Channel Countermeasures
Abstract

Masking is a widespread countermeasure to protect implementations of block-ciphers against side-channel attacks. Several masking schemes have been proposed in the literature that rely on the efficient decomposition of the underlying s-box(es). We propose a generalized decomposition method for s-boxes that encompasses several previously proposed methods while providing new trade-offs. It allows to evaluate
$$n\lambda $$
-bit to
$$m\lambda $$
-bit s-boxes for any integers
$$n,m,\lambda \ge 1$$
by seeing it a sequence of mn-variate polynomials over
$$\mathbb {F}_{2^{\lambda }}$$
and by trying to minimize the number of multiplications over
$$\mathbb {F}_{2^{\lambda }}$$
.

2015

CHES

2012

PKC

2011

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Crypto 2023
- PKC 2023
- Asiacrypt 2021
- Eurocrypt 2020
- Eurocrypt 2018
- PKC 2010

#### Coauthors

- Aurélie Bauer (2)
- Sonia Belaïd (3)
- Fabrice Benhamouda (5)
- Alexandre Berzati (1)
- Olivier Blazy (5)
- Andersson Calle Viera (1)
- Maya Chartouny (1)
- Céline Chevalier (3)
- Pooya Farshim (1)
- Thibauld Feneuil (1)
- Georg Fuchsbauer (1)
- Dahmun Goudarzi (2)
- Brett Hemenway (1)
- Louiza Khati (1)
- Eyal Kushilevitz (1)
- Fabien Laguillaumie (1)
- Benoît Libert (3)
- Steven Madec (1)
- Jules Maire (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (2)
- Pascal Paillier (2)
- Alain Passelègue (2)
- David Pointcheval (4)
- Thomas Prest (1)
- Emmanuel Prouff (3)
- Matthieu Rivain (4)
- Adi Rosén (1)
- Abdul Rahman Taleb (1)
- Adrian Thillard (4)
- Patrick Towa (2)
- David Vigilant (1)
- Srinivas Vivek (1)
- Jean-Christophe Zapalowicz (1)