International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yuval Yarom


TeeJam: Sub-Cache-Line Leakages Strike Back
The microarchitectural behavior of modern CPUs is mostly hidden from developers and users of computer software. Due to a plethora of attacks exploiting microarchitectural behavior, developers of security-critical software must, e.g., ensure their code is constant-time, which is cumbersome and usually results in slower programs. In practice, small leakages which are deemed not exploitable still remain in the codebase. For example, sub-cache-line leakages have previously been investigated in the CacheBleed and MemJam attacks, which are deemed impractical on modern platforms.In this work, we revisit and carefully analyze the 4k-aliasing effect and discover that the measurable delay introduced by this microarchitectural effect is higher than found by previous work and described by Intel. By combining the rediscovered effect with a high temporal resolution possible when single-stepping an SGX enclave, we construct a very precise, yet widely applicable attack with sub-cache-line leakage resolution. o demonstrate the significance of our findings, we apply the new attack primitive to break a hardened AES T-Table implementation that features constant cache line access patterns. The attack is up to three orders of magnitude more efficient than previous sub-cache-line attacks on AES in SGX. Furthermore, we improve upon the recent work of Sieck et al. which showed partial exploitability of very faint leakages in a utility function loading base64-encoded RSA keys. With reliable sub-cache-line resolution, we build an end-to-end attack exploiting the faint leakage that can recover 4096-bit keys in minutes on a laptop. Finally, we extend the key recovery algorithm to also work for RSA keys following the standard that uses Carmichael’s totient function, while previous attacks were restricted to RSA keys using Euler’s totient function.
Cache vs. Key-Dependency: Side Channeling an Implementation of Pilsung 📺
Over the past two decades, cache attacks have been identified as a threat to the security of cipher implementations. These attacks recover secret information by combining observations of the victim cache accesses with the knowledge of the internal structure of the cipher. So far, cache attacks have been applied to ciphers that have fixed state transformations, leaving open the question of whether using secret, key-dependent transformations enhances the security against such attacks. In this paper we investigate this question. We look at an implementation of the North Korean cipher Pilsung, as reverse-engineered by Kryptos Logic. Like AES, Pilsung is a permutation-substitution cipher, but unlike AES, both the substitution and the permutation steps in Pilsung depend on the key, and are not known to the attacker. We analyze Pilsung and design a cache-based attack. We improve the state of the art by developing techniques for reversing secret-dependent transformations. Our attack, which requires an average of eight minutes on a typical laptop computer, demonstrates that secret transformations do not necessarily protect ciphers against side channel attacks.
CacheQuote: Efficiently Recovering Long-term Secrets of SGX EPID via Cache Attacks 📺
Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) allows users to perform secure computation on platforms that run untrusted software. To validate that the computation is correctly initialized and that it executes on trusted hardware, SGX supports attestation providers that can vouch for the user’s computation. Communication with these attestation providers is based on the Extended Privacy ID (EPID) protocol, which not only validates the computation but is also designed to maintain the user’s privacy. In particular, EPID is designed to ensure that the attestation provider is unable to identify the host on which the computation executes. In this work we investigate the security of the Intel implementation of the EPID protocol. We identify an implementation weakness that leaks information via a cache side channel. We show that a malicious attestation provider can use the leaked information to break the unlinkability guarantees of EPID. We analyze the leaked information using a lattice-based approach for solving the hidden number problem, which we adapt to the zero-knowledge proof in the EPID scheme, extending prior attacks on signature schemes.
Sliding Right into Disaster: Left-to-Right Sliding Windows Leak
It is well known that constant-time implementations of modular exponentiation cannot use sliding windows. However, software libraries such as Libgcrypt, used by GnuPG, continue to use sliding windows. It is widely believed that, even if the complete pattern of squarings and multiplications is observed through a side-channel attack, the number of exponent bits leaked is not sufficient to carry out a full key-recovery attack against RSA. Specifically, 4-bit sliding windows leak only 40% of the bits, and 5-bit sliding windows leak only 33% of the bits.In this paper we demonstrate a complete break of RSA-1024 as implemented in Libgcrypt. Our attack makes essential use of the fact that Libgcrypt uses the left-to-right method for computing the sliding-window expansion. We show for the first time that the direction of the encoding matters: the pattern of squarings and multiplications in left-to-right sliding windows leaks significantly more information about the exponent than right-to-left. We show how to extend the Heninger-Shacham algorithm for partial key reconstruction to make use of this information and obtain a very efficient full key recovery for RSA-1024. For RSA-2048 our attack is efficient for 13% of keys.

Program Committees

CHES 2022
CHES 2021
CHES 2020
CHES 2019
CHES 2018