## CryptoDB

### Alexander May

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-5965-5675

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

TCHES

Dlog is Practically as Hard (or Easy) as DH – Solving Dlogs via DH Oracles on EC Standards
Abstract

Assume that we have a group G of known order q, in which we want to solve discrete logarithms (dlogs). In 1994, Maurer showed how to compute dlogs in G in poly time given a Diffie-Hellman (DH) oracle in G, and an auxiliary elliptic curve ˆÊ (Fq) of smooth order. The problem of Maurer’s reduction of solving dlogs via DH oracles is that no efficient algorithm for constructing such a smooth auxiliary curve is known. Thus, the implications of Maurer’s approach to real-world applications remained widely unclear.In this work, we explicitly construct smooth auxiliary curves for 13 commonly used, standardized elliptic curves of bit-sizes in the range [204, 256], including e.g., NIST P-256, Curve25519, SM2 and GOST R34.10. For all these curves we construct a corresponding cyclic auxiliary curve ˆÊ(Fq), whose order is 39-bit smooth, i.e., its largest factor is of bit-length at most 39 bits.This in turn allows us to compute for all divisors of the order of ˆÊ(Fq) exhaustively a codebook for all discrete logarithms. As a consequence, dlogs on ˆÊ(Fq) can efficiently be computed in a matter of seconds. Our resulting codebook sizes for each auxiliary curve are less than 29 TByte individually, and fit on our hard disk.We also construct auxiliary curves for NIST P-384 and NIST P-521 with a 65-bit and 110-bit smooth order.Further, we provide an efficient implementation of Maurer’s reduction from the dlog computation in G with order q to the dlog computation on its auxiliary curve ˆÊ (Fq). Let us provide a flavor of our results, e.g., when G is the NIST P-256 group, the results for other curves are similar. With the help of our codebook for the auxiliary curve Ê(Fq), and less than 24,000 calls to a DH oracle in G (that we simulate), we can solve discrete logarithms on NIST P-256 in around 30 secs.From a security perspective, our results show that for current elliptic curve standards< the difficulty of solving DH is practically tightly related to the difficulty of computing dlogs. Namely, unless dlogs are easy to compute on these curves G, we provide a very concrete security guarantee that DH in G must also be hard. From a cryptanalytic perspective, our results show a way to efficiently solve discrete logarithms in the presence of a DH oracle.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Too Many Hints - When LLL Breaks LWE
Abstract

All modern lattice-based schemes build on variants of the LWE problem. Information leakage of the LWE secret $\mathbf{s} \in \mathbb{Z}_q^n$ is usually modeled via so-called hints, i.e., inner products of $\mathbf{s}$ with some known vector.
At Crypto`20, Dachman-Soled, Ducas, Gong and Rossi (DDGR) defined among other so-called perfect hints and modular hints. The trailblazing DDGR framework allows to integrate and combine hints successively into lattices, and estimates the resulting LWE security loss.
We introduce a new methodology to integrate and combine an arbitrary number of perfect and modular in a single stroke. As opposed to DDGR's, our methodology is significantly more efficient in constructing lattice bases, and thus easily allows for a large number of hints up to cryptographic dimensions -- a regime that is currently impractical in DDGR's implementation.
The efficiency of our method defines a large LWE parameter regime, in which we can fully carry out attacks faster than DDGR can solely estimate them.
The benefits of our approach allow us to practically determine which number of hints is sufficient to efficiently break LWE-based lattice schemes in practice.
E.g., for mod-$q$ hints, i.e., modular hints defined over $\Z_q$, we reconstruct \Kyber-512 secret keys via LLL reduction (only!) with an amount of $449$ hints.
Our results for perfect hints significantly improve over these numbers, requiring for LWE dimension $n$ roughly $n/2$ perfect hints. E.g., we reconstruct via LLL reduction \Kyber-512 keys with merely $234$ perfect hints.
If we resort to stronger lattice reduction techniques like BKZ, we need even fewer hints.
For mod-$q$ hints our method is extremely efficient, e.g., taking total time for constructing our lattice bases and secret key recovery via LLL of around 20 mins for dimension 512.
For perfect hints in dimension 512, we require around 3 hours.
Our results demonstrate that especially perfect hints are powerful in practice, and stress the necessity to properly protect lattice schemes against leakage.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Approximate Divisor Multiples - Factoring with Only a Third of the Secret CRT-Exponents
📺
Abstract

We address Partial Key Exposure attacks on CRT-RSA on secret exponents $d_p, d_q$ with small public exponent $e$. For constant $e$ it is known that the knowledge of half of the bits of one of $d_p, d_q$ suffices to factor the RSA modulus $N$ by Coppersmith's famous {\em factoring with a hint} result. We extend this setting to non-constant $e$. Somewhat surprisingly, our attack shows that RSA with $e$ of size $N^{\frac 1 {12}}$ is most vulnerable to Partial Key Exposure, since in this case only a third of the bits of both $d_p, d_q$ suffices to factor $N$ in polynomial time, knowing either most significant bits (MSB) or least significant bits (LSB).
Let $ed_p = 1 + k(p-1)$ and $ed_q = 1 + \ell(q-1)$. On the technical side, we find the factorization of $N$ in a novel two-step approach. In a first step we recover $k$ and $\ell$ in polynomial time, in the MSB case completely elementary and in the LSB case using Coppersmith's lattice-based method. We then obtain the prime factorization of $N$ by computing the root of a univariate polynomial modulo $kp$ for our known $k$. This can be seen as an extension of Howgrave-Graham's {\em approximate divisor} algorithm to the case of {\em approximate divisor multiples} for some known multiple $k$ of an unknown divisor $p$ of $N$. The point of {\em approximate divisor multiples} is that the unknown that is recoverable in polynomial time grows linearly with the size of the multiple $k$.
Our resulting Partial Key Exposure attack with known MSBs is completely rigorous, whereas in the LSB case we rely on a standard Coppersmith-type heuristic. We experimentally verify our heuristic, thereby showing that in practice we reach our asymptotic bounds already using small lattice dimensions. Thus, our attack is highly practical.

2022

EUROCRYPT

McEliece needs a Break -- Solving McEliece-1284 and Quasi-Cyclic-2918 with Modern ISD
📺
Abstract

With the recent shift to post-quantum algorithms it becomes increasingly important to provide precise bit-security estimates for code-based cryptography such as McEliece and quasi-cyclic schemes like BIKE and HQC. While there has been significant progress on information set decoding (ISD) algorithms within the last decade, it is still unclear to which extent this affects current cryptographic security estimates.
We provide the first concrete implementations for representation-based ISD, such as May-Meurer-Thomae (MMT) or Becker-Joux-May-Meurer (BJMM), that are parameter-optimized for the McEliece and quasi-cyclic setting. Although MMT and BJMM consume more memory than naive ISD algorithms like Prange, we demonstrate that these algorithms lead to significant speedups for practical cryptanalysis already for cryptographic instances of medium security level (around 60 bit). More concretely, we provide data for the record computations of McEliece-1223 and McEliece-1284 (old record: 1161), and for the quasi-cyclic setting up to dimension 2918 (before: 1938).
Based on our record computations we extrapolate to the bit-security level of the proposed BIKE, HQC and McEliece parameters in NIST's standardization process.
For BIKE/HQC, we also show how to transfer the Decoding-One-Out-of-Many (DOOM) technique to MMT/BJMM. Although we achieve significant DOOM speedups, our estimates confirm the bit-security levels of BIKE and HQC.
For the proposed McEliece round-3 parameter sets of 192 and 256 bit, however, our extrapolation indicates a security level overestimate by roughly 20 and 10 bits, respectively, i.e., the high-security McEliece instantiations may be a bit less secure than desired.

2022

TOSC

Quantum Period Finding is Compression Robust
📺
Abstract

We study quantum period finding algorithms such as Simon and Shor (and its variant Ekerå-Håstad). For a periodic function f these algorithms produce – via some quantum embedding of f – a quantum superposition ∑x |x〉 |f(x)〉, which requires a certain amount of output qubits that represent |f(x)〉. We show that one can lower this amount to a single output qubit by hashing f down to a single bit in an oracle setting.Namely, we replace the embedding of f in quantum period finding circuits by oracle access to several embeddings of hashed versions of f. We show that on expectation this modification only doubles the required amount of quantum measurements, while significantly reducing the total number of qubits. For example, for Simon’s algorithm that finds periods in f : Fn2 → Fn2 our hashing technique reduces the required output qubits from n down to 1, and therefore the total amount of qubits from 2n to n + 1. We also show that Simon’s algorithm admits real world applications with only n + 1 qubits by giving a concrete realization of a hashed version of the cryptographic Even-Mansour construction. Moreover, for a variant of Simon’s algorithm on Even-Mansour that requires only classical queries to Even-Mansour we save a factor of (roughly) 4 in the qubits.Our oracle-based hashed version of the Ekerå-Håstad algorithm for factoring n-bit RSA reduces the required qubits from (3/2 + o(1))n down to (1/2+ o(1))n.

2022

CRYPTO

Partial Key Exposure Attacks on BIKE, Rainbow and NTRU
📺
Abstract

In a so-called partial key exposure attack one obtains some information about the secret key, e.g. via some side-channel leakage. This information might be a certain fraction of the secret key bits (erasure model) or some erroneous version of the secret key (error model). The goal is to recover the secret key from the leaked information.
There is a common belief that, as opposed to e.g. the RSA cryptosystem, most post-quantum cryptosystems are usually resistant against partial key exposure attacks. We strongly question this belief by constructing partial key exposure attacks on code-based, multivariate, and lattice-based schemes (BIKE, Rainbow and NTRU). Our attacks exploit the redundancy that modern PQ cryptosystems inherently use for efficiency reasons. The application and development of techniques from information set decoding plays a crucial role for achieving our results.
On the theoretical side, we show non-trivial information leakage bounds that allow for a polynomial time key recovery attack. As an example, for all schemes the knowledge of a constant fraction of the secret key bits suffices to reconstruct the full key in polynomial time.
Even if we no longer insist on polynomial time attacks, most of our attacks extend well and remain feasible up to large erasure and error rates. In the case of BIKE for example we obtain attack complexities around 60 bits when half of the secret key bits are erased, or a quarter of the secret key bits are faulty.
Our results show that even highly error-prone key leakage of modern PQ cryptosystems may lead to full secret key recoveries.

2021

CRYPTO

How to Meet Ternary LWE Keys
📺
Abstract

The LWE problem with its ring variants is today the most prominent candidate for building efficient public key cryptosystems resistant to quantum computers. NTRU-type cryptosystems use an LWE-type variant with small max-norm secrets, usually with ternary coefficients from the set $\{-1,0,1\}$. The presumably best attack on these schemes is a hybrid attack that combines lattice reduction techniques with Odlyzko's Meet-in-the-Middle approach. Odlyzko's algorithm is a classical combinatorial attack that for key space size $\S$ runs in time $\S^{0.5}$. We substantially improve on this Meet-in-the-Middle approach, using the representation technique developed for subset sum algorithms. Asymptotically, our heuristic Meet-in-the-Middle attack runs in time roughly $\S^{0.25}$, which also beats the $\S^{\frac 1 3}$ complexity of the best known quantum algorithm.
For the round-3 NIST post-quantum encryptions NTRU and NTRU Prime we obtain non-asymptotic instantiations of our attack with complexity roughly $\S^{0.3}$.
As opposed to other combinatorial attacks, our attack benefits from larger LWE field sizes $q$, as they are often used in modern lattice-based signatures. For example, for BLISS and GLP signatures we obtain non-asymptotic combinatorial attacks around $\S^{0.28}$.
Our attacks do not invalidate the security claims of the aforementioned schemes. However, they establish improved combinatorial upper bounds for their security. We leave it is an open question whether our new Meet-in-the-Middle attack in combination with lattice reduction can be used to speed up the hybrid attack.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Partial Key Exposure Attack on Short Secret Exponent CRT-RSA
📺
Abstract

Let $(N,e)$ be an RSA public key, where $N=pq$ is the product of equal bitsize primes $p,q$. Let $d_p, d_q$ be the corresponding secret CRT-RSA exponents.
Using a Coppersmith-type attack, Takayasu, Lu and Peng (TLP) recently showed that one obtains the factorization of $N$ in polynomial time, provided that $d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.122}$. Building on the TLP attack, we show the first {\em Partial Key Exposure} attack on short secret exponent CRT-RSA. Namely, let $N^{0.122} \leq d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.5}$. Then we show that a constant known fraction of the least significant bits (LSBs) of both $d_p, d_q$ suffices to factor $N$ in polynomial time.
Naturally, the larger $d_p,d_q$, the more LSBs are required.
E.g. if $d_p, d_q$ are of size $N^{0.13}$, then we have to know roughly a $\frac 1 5$-fraction of their LSBs, whereas for $d_p, d_q$ of size $N^{0.2}$ we require already knowledge of a $\frac 2 3$-LSB fraction. Eventually, if $d_p, d_q$ are of full size $N^{0.5}$, we have to know all of their bits.
Notice that as a side-product of our result we obtain a heuristic deterministic polynomial time factorization algorithm on input $(N,e,d_p,d_q)$.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Low Weight Discrete Logarithms and Subset Sum in $2^{0.65n}$ with Polynomial Memory
📺
Abstract

We propose two heuristic polynomial memory collision finding algorithms for the low Hamming weight discrete logarithm problem in any abelian group $G$. The first one is a direct adaptation of the Becker-Coron-Joux (BCJ) algorithm for subset sum to the discrete logarithm setting. The second one significantly improves on this adaptation for all possible weights using a more involved application of the representation technique together with some new Markov chain analysis. In contrast to other low weight discrete logarithm algorithms, our second algorithm's time complexity interpolates to Pollard's $|G|^{\frac 1 2}$ bound for general discrete logarithm instances.
We also introduce a new heuristic subset sum algorithm with polynomial memory that improves on BCJ's $2^{0.72n}$ time bound for random subset sum instances $a_1, \ldots, a_n, t \in \Z_{2^n}$. Technically, we introduce a novel nested collision finding for subset sum -- inspired by the NestedRho algorithm from Crypto '16 -- that recursively produces collisions. We first show how to instantiate our algorithm with run time $2^{0.649n}$. Using further tricks, we are then able to improve its complexity down to $2^{0.645n}$.

2018

CRYPTO

Dissection-BKW
📺
Abstract

The slightly subexponential algorithm of Blum, Kalai and Wasserman (BKW) provides a basis for assessing LPN/LWE security. However, its huge memory consumption strongly limits its practical applicability, thereby preventing precise security estimates for cryptographic LPN/LWE instantiations.We provide the first time-memory trade-offs for the BKW algorithm. For instance, we show how to solve LPN in dimension k in time $$2^{\frac{4}{3} \frac{k}{\log k} }$$ and memory $$2^{\frac{2}{3} \frac{k}{\log k} }$$. Using the Dissection technique due to Dinur et al. (Crypto ’12) and a novel, slight generalization thereof, we obtain fine-grained trade-offs for any available (subexponential) memory while the running time remains subexponential.Reducing the memory consumption of BKW below its running time also allows us to propose a first quantum version QBKW for the BKW algorithm.

2017

TOSC

The Approximate k-List Problem
Abstract

We study a generalization of the k-list problem, also known as the Generalized Birthday problem. In the k-list problem, one starts with k lists of binary vectors and has to find a set of vectors – one from each list – that sum to the all-zero target vector. In our generalized Approximate k-list problem, one has to find a set of vectors that sum to a vector of small Hamming weight ω. Thus, we relax the condition on the target vector and allow for some error positions. This in turn helps us to significantly reduce the size of the starting lists, which determines the memory consumption, and the running time as a function of ω. For ω = 0, our algorithm achieves the original k-list run-time/memory consumption, whereas for ω = n/2 it has polynomial complexity. As in the k-list case, our Approximate k-list algorithm is defined for all k = 2m,m > 1. Surprisingly, we also find an Approximate 3-list algorithm that improves in the runtime exponent compared to its 2-list counterpart for all 0 < ω < n/2. To the best of our knowledge this is the first such improvement of some variant of the notoriously hard 3-list problem. As an application of our algorithm we compute small weight multiples of a given polynomial with more flexible degree than with Wagner’s algorithm from Crypto 2002 and with smaller time/memory consumption than with Minder and Sinclair’s algorithm from SODA 2009.

2017

PKC

2012

EUROCRYPT

2010

PKC

2009

ASIACRYPT

2007

CRYPTO

2006

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2023
- Crypto 2023
- PKC 2022
- Eurocrypt 2020
- Asiacrypt 2017
- Asiacrypt 2016
- PKC 2016
- Crypto 2016
- Asiacrypt 2015
- Eurocrypt 2014
- Crypto 2014
- PKC 2013
- Crypto 2012
- PKC 2011
- Eurocrypt 2011
- Eurocrypt 2010
- PKC 2008
- Asiacrypt 2007
- Eurocrypt 2007
- Eurocrypt 2006
- PKC 2006

#### Coauthors

- Anja Becker (1)
- Daniel Bleichenbacher (1)
- Johannes Blömer (3)
- Leif Both (1)
- Jean-Sébastien Coron (1)
- Matthias Ernst (1)
- Andre Esser (5)
- Wilko Henecka (1)
- Gottfried Herold (1)
- Mathias Herrmann (3)
- Felix Heuer (1)
- Ellen Jochemsz (3)
- Antoine Joux (1)
- Saqib A. Kakvi (1)
- Eike Kiltz (1)
- Robert Kübler (2)
- Gregor Leander (1)
- Alexander May (35)
- Alexander Meurer (3)
- Julian Nowakowski (3)
- Ilya Ozerov (1)
- Maike Ritzenhofen (2)
- Santanu Sarkar (2)
- Lars Schlieper (1)
- Carl Richard Theodor Schneider (1)
- Christian Sohler (1)
- Enrico Thomae (1)
- Javier Verbel (1)
- Benne de Weger (1)
- Weiqiang Wen (1)
- Floyd Zweydinger (1)