International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Ronald L. Rivest

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2013
JOFC
FlipIt: The Game of “Stealthy Takeover”
Recent targeted attacks have increased significantly in sophistication, undermining the fundamental assumptions on which most cryptographic primitives rely for security. For instance, attackers launching an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) can steal full cryptographic keys, violating the very secrecy of “secret” keys that cryptographers assume in designing secure protocols. In this article, we introduce a game-theoretic framework for modeling various computer security scenarios prevalent today, including targeted attacks. We are particularly interested in situations in which an attacker periodically compromises a system or critical resource completely, learns all its secret information and is not immediately detected by the system owner or defender. We propose a two-player game between an attacker and defender called FlipIt or The Game of “Stealthy Takeover.” In FlipIt, players compete to control a shared resource. Unlike most existing games, FlipIt allows players to move at any given time, taking control of the resource. The identity of the player controlling the resource, however, is not revealed until a player actually moves. To move, a player pays a certain move cost. The objective of each player is to control the resource a large fraction of time, while minimizing his total move cost. FlipIt provides a simple and elegant framework in which we can formally reason about the interaction between attackers and defenders in practical scenarios. In this article, we restrict ourselves to games in which one of the players (the defender) plays with a renewal strategy, one in which the intervals between consecutive moves are chosen independently and uniformly at random from a fixed probability distribution. We consider attacker strategies ranging in increasing sophistication from simple periodic strategies (with moves spaced at equal time intervals) to more complex adaptive strategies, in which moves are determined based on feedback received during the game. For different classes of strategies employed by the attacker, we determine strongly dominant strategies for both players (when they exist), strategies that achieve higher benefit than all other strategies in a particular class. When strongly dominant strategies do not exist, our goal is to characterize the residual game consisting of strategies that are not strongly dominated by other strategies. We also prove equivalence or strict inclusion of certain classes of strategies under different conditions. Our analysis of different FlipIt variants teaches cryptographers, system designers, and the community at large some valuable lessons: 1.Systems should be designed under the assumption of repeated total compromise, including theft of cryptographic keys. FlipIt provides guidance on how to implement a cost-effective defensive strategy.2.Aggressive play by one player can motivate the opponent to drop out of the game (essentially not to play at all). Therefore, moving fast is a good defensive strategy, but it can only be implemented if move costs are low. We believe that virtualization has a huge potential in this respect.3.Close monitoring of one’s resources is beneficial in detecting potential attacks faster, gaining insight into attacker’s strategies, and scheduling defensive moves more effectively. Interestingly, FlipIt finds applications in other security realms besides modeling of targeted attacks. Examples include cryptographic key rotation, password changing policies, refreshing virtual machines, and cloud auditing.
2011
JOFC
2010
EPRINT
How to Tell if Your Cloud Files Are Vulnerable to Drive Crashes
This paper presents a new challenge---verifying that a remote server is storing a file in a fault-tolerant manner, i.e., such that it can survive hard-drive failures. We describe an approach called the Remote Assessment of Fault Tolerance (RAFT). The key technique in a RAFT is to measure the time taken for a server to respond to a read request for a collection of file blocks. The larger the number of hard drives across which a file is distributed, the faster the read-request response. Erasure codes also play an important role in our solution. We describe a theoretical framework for RAFTs and show experimentally that RAFTs can work in practice.
2009
FSE
2008
CRYPTO
The MD6 hash function
Ronald L. Rivest
2007
CRYPTO
2004
TCC
2002
CRYPTO
2002
EPRINT
Making Mix Nets Robust For Electronic Voting By Randomized Partial Checking
We propose a new technique for making mix nets robust, called randomized partial checking (RPC). The basic idea is that rather than providing a proof of completely correct operation, each server provides strong evidence of its correct operation by revealing a pseudo-randomly selected subset of its input/output relations. Randomized partial checking is exceptionally efficient compared to previous proposals for providing robustness; the evidence provided at each layer is shorter than the output of that layer, and producing the evidence is easier than doing the mixing. It works with mix nets based on any encryption scheme (i.e., on public-key alone, and on hybrid schemes using public-key/symmetric-key combinations). It also works both with Chaumian mix nets where the messages are successively encrypted with each servers' key, and with mix nets based on a single public key with randomized re-encryption at each layer. Randomized partial checking is particularly well suited for voting systems, as it ensures voter privacy and provides assurance of correct operation. Voter privacy is ensured (either probabilistically or cryptographically) with appropriate design and parameter selection. Unlike previous work, our work provides voter privacy as a global property of the mix net rather than as a property ensured by a single honest server. RPC-based mix nets also provide very high assurance of a correct election result, since a corrupt server is very likely to be caught if it attempts to tamper with even a couple of ballots.
2001
ASIACRYPT
2001
EPRINT
Are 'Strong' Primes Needed for RSA
Ron Rivest Robert Silverman
We review the arguments in favor of using so-called ``strong primes'' in the RSA public-key cryptosystem. There are two types of such arguments: those that say that strong primes are needed to protect against factoring attacks, and those that say that strong primes are needed to protect against ``cycling'' attacks (based on repeated encryption). We argue that, contrary to common belief, it is unnecessary to use strong primes in the RSA cryptosystem. That is, by using strong primes one gains a negligible increase in security over what is obtained merely by using ``random'' primes of the same size. There are two parts to this argument. First, the use of strong primes provides no additional protection against factoring attacks, because Lenstra's method of factoring based on elliptic curves (ECM) circumvents any protection that might have been offered by using strong primes. The methods that 'strong' primes are intended to guard against, as well as ECM, are probabalistic in nature, but ECM succeeds with higher probability. For RSA key sizes being proposed now, the probability of success of these methods is very low. Additionally, the newer Number Field Sieve algorithm can factor RSA keys with certainty in less time than these methods. Second, a simple group-theoretic argument shows that cycling attacks are extremely unlikely to be effective, as long as the primes used are large. Indeed, even probabalistic factoring attacks will succeed much more quickly and with higher probability than cycling attacks.
1999
FSE
1999
JOFC
1998
CRYPTO
1998
FSE
1997
FSE
1997
EPRINT
Self-Delegation with Controlled Propagation - or - What If You Lose Your Laptop
Oded Goldreich Birgit Pfitzmann Ronald L. Rivest
We introduce delegation schemes wherein a user may delegate rights to himself, i.e., to other public keys he owns, but may not safely delegate those rights to others, i.e., to their public keys. In our motivating application, a user has a primary (long-term) key that receives rights, such as access privileges, that may not be delegated to others, yet the user may reasonably wish to delegate these rights to new secondary (short-term) keys he creates to use on his laptop when traveling, to avoid having to store his primary secret key on the vulnerable laptop. We propose several cryptographic schemes, both generic and practical, that allow such self-delegation while providing strong motivation for the user not to delegate rights that he only obtained for personal use to other parties.
1996
CRYPTO
1994
FSE
The RC5 Encryption Algorithm
Ronald L. Rivest
1991
ASIACRYPT
Cryptography and Machine Learning
Ronald L. Rivest
1991
ASIACRYPT
1990
CRYPTO
1990
CRYPTO
1988
JOFC
1985
CRYPTO
1985
EUROCRYPT
1985
EUROCRYPT
1984
CRYPTO
1984
CRYPTO
1984
EUROCRYPT
1982
CRYPTO
1982
CRYPTO
1982
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Crypto 2014
Eurocrypt 2007
Crypto 2002
Eurocrypt 1996
Eurocrypt 1995
Asiacrypt 1991
Crypto 1990
Crypto 1988
Crypto 1985
Eurocrypt 1985
Eurocrypt 1984
Crypto 1984
Crypto 1982