International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Birgit Pfitzmann

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2010
EPRINT
Composable Security Analysis of OS Services
We provide an analytical framework for analyzing basic integrity properties of file systems, namely the binding of files to filenames and writing capabilities. A salient feature of our modeling and analysis is that it is *composable*: In spite of the fact that we analyze the filesystem in isolation, security is guaranteed even when the file system operates as a component within an arbitrary, and potentially adversarial system. Such secure composability properties seem essential when trying to assert the security of large systems. Our results are obtained by adapting the *Universally Composable* (UC) security framework to the analysis of software systems. Originally developed for cryptographic protocols, the UC framework allows the analysis of simple components in isolation, and provides assurance that these components maintain their behavior when combined in a large system, potentially under adversarial conditions.
2006
EPRINT
Reactively Simulatable Certified Mail
(Revision of Sept. 2004 of a journal submission from Dec. 2000.) Certified mail is the fair exchange of a message for a receipt, i.e., the recipient gets the message if and only if the sender gets a receipt. It is an important primitive for electronic commerce and other atomicity services. Certified-mail protocols are known in the literature, but there was no rigorous definition yet, in particular for optimistic protocols and for many interleaved executions. We provide such a definition via an ideal system and show that a specific real certified-mail protocol is as secure as this ideal system in the sense of reactive simulatability in the standard model of cryptography and under standard assumptions. As certified mail without any third party is not practical, we consider optimistic protocols, which involve a third party only if one party tries to cheat. The real protocol resembles prior protocols, but we had to use a different cryptographic primitive to achieve simulatability. The communication model is synchronous. This proof first demonstrated that a cryptographic multi-step protocol can fulfil a general definition of reactive simulatability enabling concurrent composition. We also first showed how formal-method style reasoning can be applied over the ideal system in a cryptographically sound way. Moreover, the treatment of multiple protocol runs and their modular proof in spite of the use of common cryptographic primitives for all runs can be seen as a first example of what is now known as joint-state composition.
2006
EPRINT
Cryptographically Sound Theorem Proving
We describe a faithful embedding of the Dolev-Yao model of Backes, Pfitzmann, and Waidner (CCS 2003) in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL. This model is cryptographically sound in the strong sense of reactive simulatability/UC, which essentially entails the preservation of arbitrary security properties under active attacks and in arbitrary protocol environments. The main challenge in designing a practical formalization of this model is to cope with the complexity of providing such strong soundness guarantees. We reduce this complexity by abstracting the model into a sound, light-weight formalization that enables both concise property specifications and efficient application of our proof strategies and their supporting proof tools. This yields the first tool-supported framework for symbolically verifying security protocols that enjoys the strong cryptographic soundness guarantees provided by reactive simulatability/UC. As a proof of concept, we have proved the security of the Needham-Schroeder-Lowe protocol using our framework.
2006
EPRINT
Symbolic and Cryptographic Analysis of the Secure WS-ReliableMessaging Scenario
Web services are an important series of industry standards for adding semantics to web-based and XML-based communication, in particular among enterprises. Like the entire series, the security standards and proposals are highly modular. Combinations of several standards are put together for testing as interoperability scenarios, and these scenarios are likely to evolve into industry best practices. In the terminology of security research, the interoperability scenarios correspond to security protocols. Hence, it is desirable to analyze them for security. In this paper, we analyze the security of the new Secure WS-ReliableMessaging Scenario, the first scenario to combine security elements with elements of another quality-of-service standard. We do this both symbolically and cryptographically. The results of both analyses are positive. The discussion of actual cryptographic primitives of web services security is a novelty of independent interest in this paper.
2006
EPRINT
Limits of the Reactive Simulatability/UC of Dolev-Yao Models with Hashes
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann Michael Waidner
Automated tools such as model checkers and theorem provers for the analysis of security protocols typically abstract from cryptography by Dolev-Yao models, i.e., abstract term algebras replace the real cryptographic operations. Recently it was shown that in essence this approach is cryptographically sound for certain operations like signing and encryption. The strongest results show this in the sense of blackbox reactive simulatability (BRSIM)/UC with only small changes to both Dolev-Yao models and natural implementations. This notion essentially means the preservation of arbitrary security properties under active attacks in arbitrary protocol environments. We show that it is impossible to extend the strong BRSIM/UC results to usual Dolev-Yao models of hash functions in the general case. These models treat hash functions as free operators of the term algebra. In contrast, we show that these models are sound in the same strict sense in the random oracle model of cryptography. For the standard model of cryptography, we also discuss several conceivable restrictions to the Dolev-Yao models and classify them into possible and impossible cases.
2005
EPRINT
Browser Model for Security Analysis of Browser-Based Protocols
Thomas Groß Birgit Pfitzmann Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi
Currently, many industrial initiatives focus on web-based applications. In this context an important requirement is that the user should only rely on a standard web browser. Hence the underlying security services also rely solely on a browser for interaction with the user. Browser-based identity federation is a prominent example of such a protocol. Unfortunately, very little is still known about the security of browser-based protocols, and they seem at least as error-prone as standard security protocols. In particular, standard web browsers have limited cryptographic capabilities and thus new protocols are used. Furthermore, these protocols require certain care by the user in person, which must be modeled. In addition, browsers, unlike normal protocol principals, cannot be assumed to do nothing but execute the given security protocol. In this paper, we lay the theoretical basis for the rigorous analysis and security proofs of browser-based security protocols. We formally model web browsers, secure browser channels, and the security-relevant browsing behavior of a user as automata. As a first rigorous security proof of a browser-based protocol we prove the security of password-based user authentication in our model. This is not only the most common stand-alone type of browser authentication, but also a fundamental building block for more complex protocols like identity federation.
2005
EPRINT
Limits of the Cryptographic Realization of Dolev-Yao-style XOR
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann
The abstraction of cryptographic operations by term algebras, called Dolev-Yao models, is essential in almost all tool-supported methods for proving security protocols. Recently significant progress was made in proving that such abstractions can be sound with respect to actual cryptographic realizations and security definitions. The strongest results show this in the sense of reactive simulatability/UC, a notion that essentially means retention of arbitrary security properties under arbitrary active attacks and in arbitrary protocol environments, with only small changes to both abstractions and natural implementations. However, these results are so far restricted to cryptographic systems like encryption and signatures which essentially only have constructors and destructors, but no further algebraic properties. Typical modern tools and complexity results around Dolev-Yao models also allow more algebraic operations. The first such operation considered is typically XOR because of its clear structure and cryptographic usefulness. We show that it is impossible to extend the strong soundness results to XOR, at least not with remotely the same generality and naturalness as for the core cryptographic systems. On the positive side, we show the soundness of an XOR model and realization under passive attacks.
2005
EPRINT
Key-dependent Message Security under Active Attacks -- BRSIM/UC-Soundness of Symbolic Encryption with Key Cycles
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann Andre Scedrov
Key-dependent message security, short KDM security, was introduced by Black, Rogaway and Shrimpton to address the case where key cycles occur among encryptions, e.g., a key is encrypted with itself. It was mainly motivated by key cycles in Dolev-Yao models, i.e., symbolic abstractions of cryptography by term algebras, and a corresponding soundness result was later shown by Ad\~{a}o et al. However, both the KDM definition and this soundness result do not allow the general active attacks typical for Dolev-Yao models and for security protocols in general. We extend these definitions so that we can obtain a soundness result under active attacks. We first present a definition AKDM as a KDM equivalent of authenticated symmetric encryption, i.e., it provides chosen-ciphertext security and integrity of ciphertexts even for key cycles. However, this is not yet sufficient for the desired soundness, and thus we give a definition DKDM that additionally allows limited dynamic revelation of keys. We show that this is sufficient for soundness, even in the strong sense of blackbox reactive simulatability (BRSIM)/UC and including joint terms with other operators. We also present constructions of schemes secure under the new definitions, based on current KDM-secure schemes. Moreover, we explore the relations between the new definitions and existing ones for symmetric encryption in detail, in the sense of implications or separating examples for almost all cases.
2004
TCC
2004
EPRINT
Symmetric Encryption in a Simulatable Dolev-Yao Style Cryptographic Library
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann
Recently we solved the long-standing open problem of justifying a Dolev-Yao type model of cryptography as used in virtually all automated protocol provers under active attacks. The justification was done by defining an ideal system handling Dolev-Yao-style terms and a cryptographic realization with the same user interface, and by showing that the realization is as secure as the ideal system in the sense of reactive simulatability. This definition encompasses arbitrary active attacks and enjoys general composition and property-preservation properties. Security holds in the standard model of cryptography and under standard assumptions of adaptively secure primitives. A major primitive missing in that library so far is symmetric encryption. We show why symmetric encryption is harder to idealize in a way that allows general composition than existing primitives in this library. We discuss several approaches to overcome these problems. For our favorite approach we provide a detailed provably secure idealization of symmetric encryption within the given framework for constructing nested terms.
2004
EPRINT
The Reactive Simulatability (RSIM) Framework for Asynchronous Systems
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann Michael Waidner
We define \emph{reactive simulatability} for general asynchronous systems. Roughly, simulatability means that a real system implements an ideal system (specification) in a way that preserves security in a general cryptographic sense. Reactive means that the system can interact with its users multiple times, e.g., in many concurrent protocol runs or a multi-round game. In terms of distributed systems, reactive simulatability is a type of refinement that preserves particularly strong properties, in particular confidentiality. A core feature of reactive simulatability is \emph{composability}, i.e., the real system can be plugged in instead of the ideal system within arbitrary larger systems; this is shown in follow-up papers, and so is the preservation of many classes of individual security properties from the ideal to the real systems. A large part of this paper defines a suitable system model. It is based on probabilistic IO automata (PIOA) with two main new features: One is \emph{generic distributed scheduling}. Important special cases are realistic adversarial scheduling, procedure-call-type scheduling among colocated system parts, and special schedulers such as for fairness, also in combinations. The other is the definition of the \emph{reactive runtime} via a realization by Turing machines such that notions like polynomial-time are composable. The simple complexity of the transition functions of the automata is not composable. As specializations of this model we define security-specific concepts, in particular a separation beween honest users and adversaries and several trust models. The benefit of IO automata as the main model, instead of only interactive Turing machines as usual in cryptographic multi-party computation, is that many cryptographic systems can be specified with an ideal system consisting of only one simple, deterministic IO automaton without any cryptographic objects, as many follow-up papers show. This enables the use of classic formal methods and automatic proof tools for proving larger distributed protocols and systems that use these cryptographic systems.
2004
EPRINT
Relating Symbolic and Cryptographic Secrecy
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann
We investigate the relation between symbolic and cryptographic secrecy properties for cryptographic protocols. Symbolic secrecy of payload messages or exchanged keys is arguably the most important notion of secrecy shown with automated proof tools. It means that an adversary restricted to symbolic operations on terms can never get the entire considered object into its knowledge set. Cryptographic secrecy essentially means computational indistinguishability between the real object and a random one, given the view of a much more general adversary. In spite of recent advances in linking symbolic and computational models of cryptography, no relation for secrecy under active attacks is known yet. For exchanged keys, we show that a certain strict symbolic secrecy definition over a specific Dolev-Yao-style cryptographic library implies cryptographic key secrecy for a real implementation of this cryptographic library. For payload messages, we present the first general cryptographic secrecy definition for a reactive scenario. The main challenge is to separate secrecy violations by the protocol under consideration from secrecy violations by the protocol users in a general way. For this definition we show a general secrecy preservation theorem under reactive simulatability, the cryptographic notion of secure implementation. This theorem is of independent cryptographic interest. We then show that symbolic secrecy implies cryptographic payload secrecy for the same cryptographic library as used in key secrecy. Our results thus enable existing formal proof techniques to establish cryptographically sound proofs of secrecy for payload messages and exchanged keys.
2003
EPRINT
A Universally Composable Cryptographic Library
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann Michael Waidner
Bridging the gap between formal methods and cryptography has recently received a lot of interest, i.e., investigating to what extent proofs of cryptographic protocols made with abstracted cryptographic operations are valid for real implementations. However, a major goal has not been achieved yet: a soundness proof for an abstract crypto-library as needed for the cryptographic protocols typically proved with formal methods, e.g., authentication and key exchange protocols. Prior work that directly justifies the typical Dolev-Yao abstraction is restricted to passive adversaries and certain protocol environments. Prior work starting from the cryptographic side entirely hides the cryptographic objects, so that the operations are not composable: While secure channels or signing of application data is modeled, one cannot encrypt a signature or sign a key. We make the major step towards this goal: We specify an abstract crypto-library that allows composed operations, define a cryptographic realization, and prove that the abstraction is sound for arbitrary active attacks in arbitrary reactive scenarios. The library currently contains public-key encryption and signatures, nonces, lists, and application data. The proof is a novel combination of a probabilistic, imperfect bisimulation with cryptographic reductions and static information-flow analysis.
2003
EPRINT
A Cryptographically Sound Security Proof of the Needham-Schroeder-Lowe Public-Key Protocol
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann
We present the first cryptographically sound security proof of the well-known Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public-key protocol. More precisely, we show that the protocol is secure against arbitrary active attacks if it is implemented using provably secure cryptographic primitives. Although we achieve security under cryptographic definitions, our proof does not have to deal with probabilistic aspects of cryptography and is hence in the scope of current proof tools. The reason is that we exploit a recently proposed ideal cryptographic library, which has a provably secure cryptographic implementation. Besides establishing the cryptographic security of the Needham-Schroeder-Lowe protocol, our result also exemplifies the potential of this cryptographic library and paves the way for cryptographically sound verification of security protocols by means of formal proof tools.
2003
EPRINT
Symmetric Authentication Within a Simulatable Cryptographic Library
Michael Backes Birgit Pfitzmann Michael Waidner
Proofs of security protocols typically employ simple abstractions of cryptographic operations, so that large parts of such proofs are independent of cryptographic details. The typical abstraction is the Dolev-Yao model, which treats cryptographic operations as a specific term algebra. However, there is no cryptographic semantics, i.e., no theorem that says what a proof with the Dolev-Yao abstraction implies for the real protocol, even if provably secure cryptographic primitives are used. Recently we introduced an extension to the Dolev-Yao model for which such a cryptographic semantics exists, i.e., where security is preserved if the abstractions are instantiated with provably secure cryptographic primitives. Only asymmetric operations (digital signatures and public-key encryption) are considered so far. Here we extend this model to include a first symmetric primitive, message authentication, and prove that the extended model still has all desired properties. The proof is a combination of a probabilistic, imperfect bisimulation with cryptographic reductions and static information-flow analysis. Considering symmetric primitives adds a major complication to the original model: we must deal with the exchange of secret keys, which might happen any time before or after the keys have been used for the first time. Without symmetric primitives only public keys need to be exchanged.
2001
FSE
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
EPRINT
Anonymous Fingerprinting with Direct Non-Repudiation
Birgit Pfitzmann Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi
Fingerprinting schemes support copyright protection by enabling the merchant of a data item to identify the original buyer of a redistributed copy. In asymmetric schemes, the merchant can also convince an arbiter of this fact. Anonymous fingerprinting schemes enable buyers to purchase digital items anonymously; however, identification is possible if they redistribute the data item. Recently, a concrete and reasonably efficient construction based on digital coins was proposed. A disadvantage is that the accused buyer has to participate in any trial protocol to deny charges. Trials with direct non-repudiation, i.e., the merchant alone holds enough evidence to convince an arbiter, are more useful in real life. This is similar to the difference between ``normal'' and ``undeniable'' signatures. In this paper, we present an equally efficient anonymous fingerprinting scheme with direct non-repudiation. The main technique we use, delayed verifiable encryption, is related to coin tracing in escrowed cash systems. However, there are technical differences, mainly to provide an unforgeable link to license conditions.
2000
EPRINT
A Model for Asynchronous Reactive Systems and its Application to Secure Message Transmission
Birgit Pfitzmann Michael Waidner
We present the first rigorous model for secure reactive systems in asynchronous networks with a sound cryptographic semantics, supporting abstract specifications and the composition of secure systems. This enables modular proofs of security, which is essential in bridging the gap between the rigorous proof techniques of cryptography and tool-supported formal proof techniques. The model follows the general simulatability approach of modern cryptography. A variety of network structures and trust models can be described, such as static and adaptive adversaries. As an example of our specification methodology we provide the first abstract and complete specification for Secure Message Transmission, improving on recent results by Lynch, and verify one concrete implementation. Our proof is based on a general theorem on the security of encryption in a reactive multi-user setting, generalizing a recent result by Bellare et.al.
1999
EUROCRYPT
1998
CRYPTO
1997
EUROCRYPT
1997
EUROCRYPT
1997
EPRINT
Self-Delegation with Controlled Propagation - or - What If You Lose Your Laptop
Oded Goldreich Birgit Pfitzmann Ronald L. Rivest
We introduce delegation schemes wherein a user may delegate rights to himself, i.e., to other public keys he owns, but may not safely delegate those rights to others, i.e., to their public keys. In our motivating application, a user has a primary (long-term) key that receives rights, such as access privileges, that may not be delegated to others, yet the user may reasonably wish to delegate these rights to new secondary (short-term) keys he creates to use on his laptop when traveling, to avoid having to store his primary secret key on the vulnerable laptop. We propose several cryptographic schemes, both generic and practical, that allow such self-delegation while providing strong motivation for the user not to delegate rights that he only obtained for personal use to other parties.
1997
JOFC
1996
EUROCRYPT
1995
EUROCRYPT
1994
EUROCRYPT
1993
CRYPTO
1992
CRYPTO
1992
EUROCRYPT
1991
CRYPTO
1991
CRYPTO
1990
EUROCRYPT
1989
EUROCRYPT
1989
EUROCRYPT

Program Committees

TCC 2004
Eurocrypt 2001 (Program chair)
Eurocrypt 1998
Eurocrypt 1995
Crypto 1993