## CryptoDB

### Jiayu Xu

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

PKC

A Universally Composable PAKE with Zero Communication Cost (And Why It Shouldn’t Be Considered UC-Secure)
Abstract

A Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocol allows two parties to agree upon a cryptographic key, when the only information shared in advance is a low-entropy password. The standard security notion for PAKE (Canetti et al., Eurocrypt 2005) is in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We show that unlike most UC security notions, UC PAKE does not imply correctness. While Canetti et al. seems to have implicitly noticed this issue, it has yet to be explicitly identified by the PAKE literature. We present a comprehensive study of correctness in UC PAKE:
1. We show that TrivialPAKE, a no-message protocol that does not satisfy correctness, is a UC PAKE;
2. We propose nine approaches to guaranteeing correctness in the UC security notion of PAKE, and show that seven of them are equivalent, whereas the other two are unachievable;
3. We prove that a direct solution, namely changing the UC PAKE functionality to incorporate correctness, is impossible;
4. Finally, we show how to naturally incorporate correctness by changing the model — we view PAKE as a three-party protocol, with the man-in-the-middle adversary as the third party.
In this way, we hope to shed some light on the very nature of UC-security in the man-in-the-middle setting.

2022

ASIACRYPT

The Abe-Okamoto Partially Blind Signature Scheme Revisited
📺
Abstract

Partially blind signatures, an extension of ordinary blind signatures, are a primitive with wide applications in e-cash and electronic voting. One of the most efficient schemes to date is the one by Abe and Okamoto (CRYPTO 2000), whose underlying idea - the OR-proof technique - has served as the basis for several works.
We point out several subtle flaws in the original proof of security, and provide a new detailed and rigorous proof, achieving similar bounds as the original work. We believe our insights on the proof strategy will find useful in the security analyses of other OR-proof-based schemes.

2022

PKC

On Pairing-Free Blind Signature Schemes in the Algebraic Group Model
📺
Abstract

Studying the security and efficiency of blind signatures is an
important goal for privacy sensitive applications. In particular, for large-
scale settings (e.g., cryptocurrency tumblers), it is important for schemes
to scale well with the number of users in the system. Unfortunately, all
practical schemes either 1) rely on (very strong) number theoretic hard-
ness assumptions and/or computationally expensive pairing operations
over bilinear groups, or 2) support only a polylogarithmic number of
concurrent (i.e., arbitrarily interleaved) signing sessions per public key.
In this work, we revisit the security of two pairing-free blind signature
schemes in the Algebraic Group Model (AGM) + Random Oracle Model
(ROM). Concretely,
1. We consider the security of Abe’s scheme (EUROCRYPT ‘01), which
is known to have a flawed proof in the plain ROM. We adapt the
scheme to allow a partially blind variant and give a proof of the new
scheme under the discrete logarithm assumption in the AGM+ROM,
even for (polynomially many) concurrent signing sessions.
2. We then prove that the popular blind Schnorr scheme is secure un-
der the one-more discrete logarithm assumption if the signatures
are issued sequentially. While the work of Fuchsbauer et al. (EURO-
CRYPT ‘20) proves the security of the blind Schnorr scheme for con-
current signing sessions in the AGM+ROM, its underlying assump-
tion, ROS, is proven false by Benhamouda et al. (EUROCRYPT
‘21) when more than polylogarithmically many signatures are issued.
Given the recent progress, we present the first security analysis of the
blind Schnorr scheme in the slightly weaker sequential setting. We
also show that our security proof reduces from the weakest possible
assumption, with respect to known reduction techniques.

2022

TCC

How to Obfuscate MPC Inputs
Abstract

We introduce the idea of input obfuscation for secure two-party computation (io2PC). Sup-
pose Alice holds a private value x and wants to allow clients to learn f (x, yi), for their choice
of yi, via a secure computation protocol. The goal of io2PC is for Alice to encode x so that an
adversary who compromises her storage gets only oracle access to the function f (x, ·). At the
same time, there must be a 2PC protocol for computing f (x, y) that takes only this encoding
(and not the plaintext x) as input.
We show how to achieve io2PC for functions that have virtual black-box (VBB) obfuscation
in either the random oracle model or generic group model. For functions that can be VBB-
obfuscated in the random oracle model, we provide an io2PC protocol by replacing the random
oracle with an oblivious PRF. For functions that can be VBB-obfuscated in the generic group
model, we show how Alice can instantiate a “personalized” generic group. A personalized generic
group is one where only Alice can perform the algebraic operations of the group, but where she
can let others perform operations in that group via an oblivious interactive protocol.

2021

PKC

On the (In)Security of the Diffie-Hellman Oblivious PRF with Multiplicative Blinding
📺
Abstract

Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (OPRF) is a protocol between a client holding input x and a server holding key k for a PRF F. At the end, the client learns F_k(x) and nothing else while the server learns nothing. OPRF's have found diverse applications as components of larger protocols, and the currently most efficient instantiation, with security proven in the UC model, is F_k(x)=H2(x,(H1(x))^k) computed using so-called exponential blinding, i.e., the client sends a=(H1(x))^r for random r, the server responds b=a^k, which the client ublinds as v=b^{1/r} to compute F_k(x)=H2(x,v).
However, this protocol requires two variable-base exponentiations on the client, while a more efficient multiplicative blinding scheme replaces one or both client exponentiations with fixed-base exponentiation, leading to the decrease of the client's computational cost by a factor between two to six, depending on pre-computation.
We analyze the security of the above OPRF with multiplicative blinding, showing surprising weaknesses that offer attack avenues which are not present using exponential blinding. We characterize the security of this OPRF implementation as a "Revised OPRF" functionality, a relaxation of UC OPRF functionality used in prior work.
On the positive side, we show that the Revised OPRF suffices for the security of OPAQUE, the asymmetric PAKE protocol, hence allowing OPAQUE the computational advantages of multiplicative blinding. Unfortunately, we also show examples of other OPRF applications which become insecure when using such blinding. The conclusion is that usage of multiplicative blinding for F_k(x) defined as above, in settings where correct value g^k (needed for multiplicative blinding) is not authenticated, and OPRF inputs are of low entropy, must be carefully analyzed, or avoided all together. We complete the picture by showing a simple and safe alternative definition of function F_k(x) which offers (full) UC OPRF security using either form of blinding.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Algebraic Adversaries in the Universal Composability Framework
📺
Abstract

The algebraic-group model (AGM), which lies between the generic group model and the standard model of computation, provides a means by which to analyze the security of cryptosystems against so-called algebraic adversaries. We formalize the AGM within the framework of universal composability, providing formal definitions for this setting and proving an appropriate composition theorem.
This extends the applicability of the AGM to more-complex protocols, and lays the foundations for analyzing algebraic adversaries in a composable fashion.
Our results also clarify the meaning of composing proofs in the AGM with other proofs and they highlight a natural form of independence between idealized groups that seems inherent to the AGM and has not been made formal before---these insights also apply to the composition of game-based proofs in the AGM.
We show the utility of our model by proving several important protocols universally composable for algebraic adversaries, specifically: (1) the Chou-Orlandi protocol for oblivious transfer, and (2) the SPAKE2 and CPace protocols for password-based authenticated key exchange.

2020

CRYPTO

Universally Composable Relaxed Password Authenticated Key Exchange
📺
Abstract

Protocols for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE) allow two parties who share only a weak password to agree on a cryptographic key. We revisit the notion of PAKE in the universal composability (UC) framework, and propose a relaxation of the PAKE functionality of Canetti et al. that we call lazy-extraction PAKE (lePAKE). Our relaxation allows the ideal-world adversary to postpone its password guess until after a session is complete. We argue that this relaxed notion still provides meaningful security in the password-only setting. As our main result, we show that several PAKE protocols that were previously only proven secure with respect to a ``game-based'' definition of security can be shown to UC-realize the lePAKE functionality in the random-oracle model. These include SPEKE, SPAKE2, and TBPEKE, the most efficient PAKE schemes currently known.

2020

TCC

On the Security of Time-Lock Puzzles and Timed Commitments
📺
Abstract

Time-lock puzzles—problems whose solution requires some amount of \emph{sequential} effort—have recently received increased interest (e.g., in the context of verifiable delay functions). Most constructions rely on the sequential-squaring conjecture that computing $g^{2^T} \bmod N$ for a uniform~$g$ requires at least $T$ (sequential) steps. We study the security of time-lock primitives from two perspectives:
1. We give the first hardness result about the sequential-squaring conjecture. Namely, in a quantitative version of the algebraic group model (AGM) that we call the \emph{strong} AGM, we show that any speed up of sequential squaring is as hard as factoring $N$.
2. We then focus on \emph{timed commitments}, one of the most important primitives that can be obtained from time-lock puzzles. We extend existing security definitions to settings that may arise when using timed commitments in higher-level protocols, and give the first construction of \emph{non-malleable} timed commitments. As a building block of independent interest, we also define (and give constructions for) a related primitive called \emph{timed public-key encryption}.

2019

CRYPTO

Strong Asymmetric PAKE Based on Trapdoor CKEM
📺
Abstract

Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocols allow two parties that share a password to establish a shared key in a way that is immune to offline attacks. Asymmetric PAKE (aPAKE) [20] adapts this notion to the common client-server setting, where the server stores a one-way hash of the password instead of the password itself, and server compromise allows the adversary to recover the password only via the (inevitable) offline dictionary attack. Most aPAKE protocols, however, allow an attacker to pre-compute a dictionary of hashed passwords, thus instantly learning the password on server compromise. Recently, Jarecki, Krawczyk, and Xu formalized a Universally Composable strong aPAKE (saPAKE) [23], which requires the password hash to be salted so that the dictionary attack can only start after the server compromise leaks the salt and the salted hash. The UC saPAKE protocol shown in [23], called OPAQUE, uses 3 protocol flows, 3–4 exponentiations per party, and relies on the One-More Diffie-Hellman assumption in ROM.We propose an alternative UC saPAKE construction based on a novel use of the encryption+SPHF paradigm for UC PAKE design [19, 26]. Compared to OPAQUE, our protocol uses only 2 flows, has comparable costs, avoids hashing onto a group, and relies on different assumptions, namely Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH), Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH), and an assumption that the Boneh-Boyen function $$f_ s (x)=g^{1/( s +x)}$$ [9] is a Salted Tight One-Way Function (STOWF). We formalize a UC model for STOWF and analyze the Boneh-Boyen function as UC STOWF in the generic group model and ROM.Our saPAKE protocol employs a new form of Conditional Key Encapsulation Mechanism (CKEM), a generalization of SPHF, which we call an implicit-statement CKEM. This strengthening of SPHF allows for a UC (sa)PAKE design where only the client commits to its password, and only the server performs an SPHF, compared to the standard UC PAKE design paradigm where the encrypt+SPHF subroutine is used symmetrically by both parties.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023

#### Coauthors

- Michel Abdalla (2)
- Manuel Barbosa (2)
- Tatiana Bradley (2)
- Stanislaw Jarecki (4)
- Julia Kastner (2)
- Jonathan Katz (3)
- Hugo Krawczyk (2)
- Julian Loss (4)
- Ian McQuoid (1)
- Mike Rosulek (1)
- Lawrence Roy (1)