## CryptoDB

### Benny Pinkas

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-9053-3024

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

CRYPTO

How to Recover a Secret with O(n) Additions
Abstract

Motivated by applications in threshold cryptography, we initiate the study of secret-sharing schemes that distribute a secret from a large field $F_p$ among $n$ parties such that the recovery algorithm makes a minimal number of \emph{additions}. Existing schemes achieve either $O(n\log p)$ additions (e.g., Shamir, Comm. of ACM, 1979) or at least $\Omega(n^2)$ operations independently of the field size (e.g., Cramer-Xing, EUROCRYPT, 2020). This leaves open the existence of a secret sharing whose recovery algorithm can be computed by performing only $O(n)$ additions.
We resolve the question in the affirmative and present such a near-threshold secret sharing scheme that provides privacy against unauthorized sets of density at most $\tau_p$, and correctness for authorized sets of density at least $\tau_c$, for any given arbitrarily close constants $\tau_p<\tau_c$. Reconstruction can be computed by making at most $O(n)$ additions and in addition, (1) the share size is constant, (2) the sharing also makes $O(n)$ additions, and (3) the scheme is a blackbox secret-sharing scheme, i.e., the sharing and reconstruction algorithms work universally for all finite abelian groups $\mathbb{G}$. Prior to our work, no such scheme was known even without features (1)--(3) and even for the ramp setting where $\tau_p$ and $\tau_c$ are far-apart. As a by-product we derive the first blackbox near-treshosld secret-sharing scheme with linear-time sharing. We also present several concrete instantiations of our approach that seems practically efficient (e.g., for threshold discrete-log based signatures).
Our constructions are combinatorial in nature. We combine graph-based erasure codes that support ``peeling-based'' decoding with a new randomness extraction for low dimensional sub-space that is based on inner-product with a small-integer vector. Based on these tools, we derive efficient secret sharing scheme via the blueprint of Cramer et al. (EUROCRYPT 2015) with far-apart thresholds. We then introduce a general concatenation-like transform for secret sharing schemes that allows us to arbitrarily shrink the privacy-correctness gap with a minor overhead. Our techniques enrich the secret-sharing toolbox and, in the context of blackbox secrete sharing, provide a new alternative to existing number-theoretic approaches. We believe that our tools are likely to lead to other applications.

2021

CRYPTO

Oblivious Key-Value Stores and Amplification for Private Set Intersection
📺
Abstract

Many recent private set intersection (PSI) protocols encode input sets as polynomials. We consider the more general notion of an oblivious key-value store (OKVS), which is a data structure that compactly represents a desired mapping $k_i$ to $v_i$. When the $v_i$ values are random, the OKVS data structure hides the $k_i$ values that were used to generate it. The simplest (and size-optimal) OKVS is a polynomial $p$ that is chosen using interpolation such that $p(k_i)=v_i$.
We initiate the formal study of oblivious key-value stores, and show new constructions resulting in the fastest OKVS to date.
Similarly to cuckoo hashing, current analysis techniques are insufficient for finding *concrete* parameters to guarantee a small failure probability for our OKVS constructions. Moreover,
it would cost too much to run experiments to validate a small upperbound on the failure probability. We therefore show novel techniques to amplify an OKVS construction which has a failure probability $p$, to an OKVS with a similar overhead and failure probability $p^c$. Setting $p$ to be moderately small enables to validate it by running a relatively small number of $O(1/p)$ experiments. This validates a $p^c$ failure probability for the amplified OKVS.
Finally, we describe how OKVS can significantly improve the state of the art of essentially all variants of PSI. This leads to the fastest two-party PSI protocols to date, for both the semi-honest and the malicious settings. Specifically, in networks with moderate bandwidth (e.g., 30 - 300 Mbps) our malicious two-party PSI protocol has 40\% less communication and is 20-40% faster than the previous state of the art protocol, even though the latter only has heuristic confidence.

2020

EUROCRYPT

PSI from PaXoS: Fast, Malicious Private Set Intersection
📺
Abstract

We present a 2-party private set intersection (PSI) protocol which provides security against malicious participants, yet is almost as fast as the fastest known semi-honest PSI protocol of Kolesnikov et al. (CCS 2016).
Our protocol is based on a new approach for two-party PSI, which can be instantiated to provide security against either malicious or semi-honest adversaries. The protocol is unique in that the only difference between the semi-honest and malicious versions is an instantiation with different parameters for a linear error-correction code. It is also the first PSI protocol which is concretely efficient while having linear communication and security against malicious adversaries, while running in the OT-hybrid model (assuming a non-programmable random oracle).
State of the art semi-honest PSI protocols take advantage of cuckoo hashing, but it has proven a challenge to use cuckoo hashing for malicious security. Our protocol is the first to use cuckoo hashing for malicious- secure PSI. We do so via a new data structure, called a probe-and-XOR of strings (PaXoS), which may be of independent interest. This abstraction captures important properties of previous data structures, most notably garbled Bloom filters. While an encoding by a garbled Bloom filter is larger by a factor of $\Omega(\lambda)$ than the original data, we describe a significantly improved PaXoS based on cuckoo hashing that achieves constant rate while being no worse in other relevant efficiency measures.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Efficient Circuit-Based PSI with Linear Communication
📺
Abstract

We present a new protocol for computing a circuit which implements the private set intersection functionality (PSI). Using circuits for this task is advantageous over the usage of specific protocols for PSI, since many applications of PSI do not need to compute the intersection itself but rather functions based on the items in the intersection.Our protocol is the first circuit-based PSI protocol to achieve linear communication complexity. It is also concretely more efficient than all previous circuit-based PSI protocols. For example, for sets of size
$$2^{20}$$
it improves the communication of the recent work of Pinkas et al. (EUROCRYPT’18) by more than 10 times, and improves the run time by a factor of 2.8x in the LAN setting, and by a factor of 5.8x in the WAN setting.Our protocol is based on the usage of a protocol for computing oblivious programmable pseudo-random functions (OPPRF), and more specifically on our technique to amortize the cost of batching together multiple invocations of OPPRF.

2019

JOFC

Efficient Constant-Round Multi-party Computation Combining BMR and SPDZ
Abstract

Recently, there has been huge progress in the field of concretely efficient secure computation, even while providing security in the presence of malicious adversaries. This is especially the case in the two-party setting, where constant-round protocols exist that remain fast even over slow networks. However, in the multi-party setting, all concretely efficient fully secure protocols, such as SPDZ, require many rounds of communication. In this paper, we present a constant-round multi-party secure computation protocol that is fully secure in the presence of malicious adversaries and for any number of corrupted parties. Our construction is based on the constant-round protocol of Beaver et al. (the BMR protocol) and is the first version of that protocol that is concretely efficient for the dishonest majority case. Our protocol includes an online phase that is extremely fast and mainly consists of each party locally evaluating a garbled circuit. For the offline phase, we present both a generic construction (using any underlying MPC protocol) and a highly efficient instantiation based on the SPDZ protocol. Our estimates show the protocol to be considerably more efficient than previous fully secure multi-party protocols.

2019

CRYPTO

SpOT-Light: Lightweight Private Set Intersection from Sparse OT Extension
📺
Abstract

We describe a novel approach for two-party private set intersection (PSI) with semi-honest security. Compared to existing PSI protocols, ours has a more favorable balance between communication and computation. Specifically, our protocol has the lowest monetary cost of any known PSI protocol, when run over the Internet using cloud-based computing services (taking into account current rates for CPU + data). On slow networks (e.g., 10 Mbps) our protocol is actually the fastest.Our novel underlying technique is a variant of oblivious transfer (OT) extension that we call sparse OT extension. Conceptually it can be thought of as a communication-efficient multipoint oblivious PRF evaluation. Our sparse OT technique relies heavily on manipulating high-degree polynomials over large finite fields (i.e. elements whose representation requires hundreds of bits). We introduce extensive algorithmic and engineering improvements for interpolation and multi-point evaluation of such polynomials, which we believe will be of independent interest.Finally, we present an extensive empirical comparison of state-of-the-art PSI protocols in several application scenarios and along several dimensions of measurement: running time, communication, peak memory consumption, and—arguably the most relevant metric for practice—monetary cost.

2018

CRYPTO

Fast Distributed RSA Key Generation for Semi-honest and Malicious Adversaries
📺
Abstract

We present two new, highly efficient, protocols for securely generating a distributed RSA key pair in the two-party setting. One protocol is semi-honestly secure and the other maliciously secure. Both are constant round and do not rely on any specific number-theoretic assumptions and improve significantly over the state-of-the-art by allowing a slight leakage (which we show to not affect security).For our maliciously secure protocol our most significant improvement comes from executing most of the protocol in a “strong” semi-honest manner and then doing a single, light, zero-knowledge argument of correct execution. We introduce other significant improvements as well. One such improvement arrives in showing that certain, limited leakage does not compromise security, which allows us to use lightweight subprotocols. Another improvement, which may be of independent interest, comes in our approach for multiplying two large integers using OT, in the malicious setting, without being susceptible to a selective-failure attack.Finally, we implement our malicious protocol and show that its performance is an order of magnitude better than the best previous protocol, which provided only semi-honest security.

2018

PKC

Committed MPC
Abstract

We present a new multiparty computation protocol secure against a static and malicious dishonest majority. Unlike most previous protocols that were based on working on MAC-ed secret shares, our approach is based on computations on homomorphic commitments to secret shares. Specifically we show how to realize MPC using any additively-homomorphic commitment scheme, even if such a scheme is an interactive two-party protocol.Our new approach enables us to do arithmetic computation over arbitrary finite fields. In addition, since our protocol computes over committed values, it can be readily composed within larger protocols, and can also be used for efficiently implementing committing OT or committed OT. This is done in two steps, each of independent interest:1.Black-box extension of any (possibly interactive) two-party additively homomorphic commitment scheme to an additively homomorphic multiparty commitment scheme, only using coin-tossing and a “weak” equality evaluation functionality.2.Realizing multiplication of multiparty commitments based on a lightweight preprocessing approach.
Finally we show how to use the fully homomorphic commitments to compute any functionality securely in the presence of a malicious adversary corrupting any number of parties.

2015

JOFC

2012

JOFC

Secure Two-Party Computation via Cut-and-Choose Oblivious Transfer
Abstract

Protocols for secure two-party computation enable a pair of parties to compute a function of their inputs while preserving security properties such as privacy, correctness and independence of inputs. Recently, a number of protocols have been proposed for the efficient construction of two-party computation secure in the presence of malicious adversaries (where security is proven under the standard simulation-based ideal/real model paradigm for defining security). In this paper, we present a protocol for this task that follows the methodology of using cut-and-choose to boost Yao’s protocol to be secure in the presence of malicious adversaries. Relying on specific assumptions (DDH), we construct a protocol that is significantly more efficient and far simpler than the protocol of Lindell and Pinkas (Eurocrypt 2007) that follows the same methodology. We provide an exact, concrete analysis of the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that (at least for not very small circuits) our protocol is more efficient than any other known today.

2007

EUROCRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- PKC 2019
- Crypto 2019
- Crypto 2016
- PKC 2014
- Crypto 2011
- PKC 2010
- Crypto 2009
- PKC 2009
- PKC 2006
- Eurocrypt 2005
- Crypto 2003

#### Coauthors

- Ittai Abraham (1)
- Arash Afshar (1)
- Gagan Aggarwal (2)
- Benny Applebaum (1)
- Christopher W. Fletcher (1)
- Tore Kasper Frederiksen (2)
- Michael J. Freedman (3)
- Gayathri Garimella (1)
- Shay Gueron (1)
- Shai Halevi (1)
- Carmit Hazay (1)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Yehuda Lindell (13)
- James L. McInnes (1)
- Nina Mishra (2)
- Payman Mohassel (1)
- Moni Naor (7)
- Kartik Nayak (1)
- Oded Nir (1)
- Kobbi Nissim (2)
- Ariel Nof (1)
- Valery Osheter (1)
- Eli Oxman (1)
- Benny Pinkas (38)
- Omer Reingold (2)
- Tzachy Reinman (1)
- Ling Ren (1)
- Ben Riva (1)
- Mike Rosulek (3)
- Thomas Schneider (3)
- Nigel P. Smart (3)
- Oleksandr Tkachenko (1)
- Ni Trieu (3)
- Christian Weinert (1)
- Udi Wieder (1)
- Stephen C. Williams (1)
- Avishay Yanai (7)