International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yixin Shen

ORCID: 0000-0002-8657-9337


Provable Dual Attacks on Learning with Errors
Amaury Pouly Yixin Shen
Learning with Errors (LWE) is an important problem for post-quantum cryptography (PQC) that underlines the security of several NIST PQC selected algorithms. Several recent papers have claimed improvements on the complexity of so-called dual attacks on LWE. These improvements make dual attacks comparable to or even better than primal attacks in certain parameter regimes. Unfortunately, those improvements rely on a number of untested and hard-to-test statistical assumptions. Furthermore, a recent paper [Ducas and Pulles, 2023] claims that the whole premise of those improvements might be incorrect. The goal of this paper is to improve the situation by proving the correctness of a dual attack without relying on any statistical assumption. Although our attack is greatly simplified compared to the recent ones, it shares many important technical elements with those attacks and can serve as a basis for the analysis of more advanced attacks. We provide some rough estimates on the complexity of our simplified attack on Kyber using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain discrete Gaussian sampler. Our main contribution is to clearly identify a set of parameters under which our attack (and presumably other recent dual attacks) can work. Furthermore, our analysis completely departs from the existing statistics-based analysis and is instead rooted in geometry. We also compare the regime in which our algorithm works to the ``contradictory regime'' of [Ducas and Pulles, 2023]. We observe that those two regimes are essentially complementary. Finally, we give a quantum version of our algorithm to speed up the computation. The algorithm is inspired by [Albrecht and Shen 2022] but is completely formal and does not rely on any heuristics.
Finding many Collisions via Reusable Quantum Walks - Application to Lattice Sieving
Given a random function $f$ with domain $[2^n]$ and codomain $[2^m]$, with $m \geq n$, a collision of $f$ is a pair of distinct inputs with the same image. Collision finding is an ubiquitous problem in cryptanalysis, and it has been well studied using both classical and quantum algorithms. Indeed, the quantum query complexity of the problem is well known to be $\Theta(2^{m/3})$, and matching algorithms are known for any value of $m$. The situation becomes different when one is looking for \emph{multiple} collision pairs. Here, for $2^k$ collisions, a query lower bound of $\Theta(2^{(2k+m)/3})$ was shown by Liu and Zhandry (EUROCRYPT~2019). A matching algorithm is known, but only for relatively small values of $m$, when many collisions exist. In this paper, we improve the algorithms for this problem and, in particular, extend the range of admissible parameters where the lower bound is met. Our new method relies on a \emph{chained quantum walk} algorithm, which might be of independent interest. It allows to extract multiple solutions of an MNRS-style quantum walk, without having to recompute it entirely: after finding and outputting a solution, the current state is reused as the initial state of another walk. As an application, we improve the quantum sieving algorithms for the shortest vector problem (SVP), with a complexity of $2^{0.2563d + o(d)}$ instead of the previous $2^{0.2570d + o(d)}$.
Improved Classical and Quantum Algorithms for Subset-Sum 📺
We present new classical and quantum algorithms for solving random subset-sum instances. First, we improve over the Becker-Coron-Joux algorithm (EUROCRYPT 2011) from $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.291 n})$ down to $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.283 n})$, using more general representations with values in $\{0,1,-1,2\}$. Next, we improve the state of the art of quantum algorithms for this problem in several directions. By combining the Howgrave-Graham-Joux algorithm (EUROCRYPT 2010) and quantum search, we devise an algorithm with asymptotic cost $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.236 n})$, lower than the cost of the quantum walk based on the same classical algorithm proposed by Bernstein, Jeffery, Lange and Meurer (PQCRYPTO 2013). This algorithm has the advantage of using \emph{classical} memory with quantum random access, while the previously known algorithms used the quantum walk framework, and required \emph{quantum} memory with quantum random access. We also propose new quantum walks for subset-sum, performing better than the previous best time complexity of $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.226 n})$ given by Helm and May (TQC 2018). We combine our new techniques to reach a time $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.216 n})$. This time is dependent on a heuristic on quantum walk updates, formalized by Helm and May, that is also required by the previous algorithms. We show how to partially overcome this heuristic, and we obtain an algorithm with quantum time $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.218 n})$ requiring only the standard classical subset-sum heuristics.
Quantum Lattice Enumeration and Tweaking Discrete Pruning
Enumeration is a fundamental lattice algorithm. We show how to speed up enumeration on a quantum computer, which affects the security estimates of several lattice-based submissions to NIST: if T is the number of operations of enumeration, our quantum enumeration runs in roughly $$\sqrt{T}$$ operations. This applies to the two most efficient forms of enumeration known in the extreme pruning setting: cylinder pruning but also discrete pruning introduced at Eurocrypt ’17. Our results are based on recent quantum tree algorithms by Montanaro and Ambainis-Kokainis. The discrete pruning case requires a crucial tweak: we modify the preprocessing so that the running time can be rigorously proved to be essentially optimal, which was the main open problem in discrete pruning. We also introduce another tweak to solve the more general problem of finding close lattice vectors.