International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Linear Cryptanalysis of FF3-1 and FEA

Tim Beyne , imec-COSIC, ESAT, KU Leuven
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-84242-0_3 (login may be required)
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Presentation: Slides
Conference: CRYPTO 2021
Award: Best Paper by Early Career Researchers Award, Honorable mention for best paper
Abstract: Improved attacks on generic small-domain Feistel ciphers with alternating round tweaks are obtained using linear cryptanalysis. This results in practical distinguishing and message-recovery attacks on the United States format-preserving encryption standard FF3-1 and the South-Korean standards FEA-1 and FEA-2. The data-complexity of the proposed attacks on FF3-1 and FEA-1 is $O(N^{r/2 - 1.5})$, where $N^2$ is the domain size and $r$ is the number of rounds. For example, FF3-1 with $N = 10^3$ can be distinguished from an ideal tweakable block cipher with advantage $\ge 1/10$ using $2^{23}$ encryption queries. Recovering the left half of a message with similar advantage requires $2^{24}$ data. The analysis of FF3-1 serves as an interesting real-world application of (generalized) linear cryptanalysis over the group $\mathbb{Z}/N\mathbb{Z}$.
Video from CRYPTO 2021
  title={Linear Cryptanalysis of FF3-1 and FEA},
  author={Tim Beyne},