International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Mahimna Kelkar


One-Message Secure Reductions: On the Cost of Converting Correlations
Correlated secret randomness is a useful resource for secure computation protocols, often enabling dramatic speedups compared to protocols in the plain model. This has motivated a line of work on identifying and securely generating useful correlations. Different kinds of correlations can vary greatly in terms of usefulness and ease of generation. While there has been major progress on efficiency generating oblivious transfer (OT) correlations, other useful kinds of correlations are much more costly to generate. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop efficient techniques for securely converting copies of a given source correlation into copies of a given target correlation, especially when the former are cheaper to generate than the latter. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of such conversions that only involve a single uni-directional message. We refer to such a conversion as a one-way secure reduction (OMSR). Recent works (Agarwal et. al, Eurocrypt 2022; Khorasgani et. al, Eurocrypt 2022) studied a similar problem when no communication was allowed; this setting is quite restrictive, however, with few non-trivial conversions being feasible. The OMSR setting substantially expands the scope of feasible results, allowing for direct applications to existing MPC protocols. We obtain the following positive and negative results. - (OMSR constructions). We present a general rejection-sampling based technique for OMSR with OT source correlations. We apply it to substantially improve in the communication complexity of optimized protocols for distributed symmetric cryptography (Dinur et al., Crypto 2021). - (OMSR lower bounds). We develop general techniques for proving lower bounds on the communication complexity of OMSR, matching our positive results up to small constant factors.
MPC-Friendly Symmetric Cryptography from Alternating Moduli: Candidates, Protocols, and Applications 📺
We study new candidates for symmetric cryptographic primitives that leverage alternation between linear functions over $\mathbb{Z}_2$ and $\mathbb{Z}_3$ to support fast protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC). This continues the study of weak pseudorandom functions of this kind initiated by Boneh et al. (TCC 2018) and Cheon et al. (PKC 2021). We make the following contributions. (Candidates). We propose new designs of symmetric primitives based on alternating moduli. These include candidate one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, and weak pseudorandom functions. We propose concrete parameters based on cryptanalysis. (Protocols). We provide a unified approach for securely evaluating modulus-alternating primitives in different MPC models. For the original candidate of Boneh et al., our protocols obtain at least 2x improvement in all performance measures. We report efficiency benchmarks of an optimized implementation. (Applications). We showcase the usefulness of our candidates for a variety of applications. This includes short ``Picnic-style'' signature schemes, as well as protocols for oblivious pseudorandom functions, hierarchical key derivation, and distributed key generation for function secret sharing.
Order-Fairness for Byzantine Consensus 📺
Decades of research in both cryptography and distributed systems has extensively studied the problem of state machine replication, also known as Byzantine consensus. A consensus protocol must usually satisfy two properties: {\em consistency} and {\em liveness}. These properties ensure that honest participating nodes agree on the same log and dictate when fresh transactions get added. They fail, however, to ensure against adversarial manipulation of the actual {\em ordering} of transactions in the log. Indeed, in leader-based protocols (almost all protocols used today), malicious leaders can directly choose the final transaction ordering. To rectify this problem, we propose a third consensus property: {\em transaction order-fairness}. We initiate the first formal investigation of order-fairness and explain its fundamental importance. We also provide several natural definitions for order-fairness and analyze the assumptions necessary to realize them. We also propose a new class of consensus protocols called Aequitas. Aequitas protocols are the first to achieve order-fairness in addition to consistency and liveness. They can be realized in a black-box way using existing broadcast and agreement primitives (or indeed using any consensus protocol), and work in both synchronous and asynchronous network models.