## CryptoDB

### Michele Ciampi

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-5062-0388

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Universal Composable Transaction Serialization with Order Fairness
Abstract

Order fairness in the context of distributed ledgers has received recently significant attention due to a range of attacks that exploit the reordering and adaptive injection of transactions (violating what is known as ``input causality''). To address such concerns an array of definitions for order fairness has been put forth together with impossibility and feasibility results highlighting the difficulty and multifaceted nature of fairness in transaction serialization. Motivated by this we present a comprehensive modeling of order fairness capitalizing on the universal composition (UC) setting. Our results capture the different flavors of sender order fairness and input causality (which is arguably one of the most critical aspects of ledger transaction processing with respect to serialization attacks) and we parametrically illustrate what are the limits of feasibility for realistic constructions via an impossibility result. Our positive result, a novel distributed ledger protocol utilizing trusted enclaves, complements tightly our impossibility result, hence providing an \emph{optimal} sender order fairness ledger construction that is also eminently practical.

2024

CRYPTO

Black-Box (and Fast) Non-Malleable Zero Knowledge
Abstract

Non-malleable zero-knowledge (NMZK), originally introduced in the seminal work of Dolev, Dwork, and Naor (STOC 91), is a fundamental concept for modeling the security of proof systems against man-in-the-middle attacks.
After 30 years of active research, Kim, Liang, and Pandey (CRYPTO 2022) presented the first efficient constant-round NMZK argument system based solely on symmetric-key cryptography. Their construction relies on a non-black-box use of the involved cryptographic primitives and on multiple executions of Ligero (CCS 2017) that affect both the round complexity and the computational efficiency of their protocol. Their work left open the natural important challenge of achieving NMZK using the underlying primitives only in a black-box fashion (regardless of the number of rounds and actual efficiency).
In this paper, we solve the aforementioned open problem by presenting the first NMZK argument system based on the black-box use of cryptographic primitives. Our work is optimal in the use of primitives since we only need one-way functions, and asymptotically optimal in the number of rounds since we only require a constant number of rounds. Our argument system is non-malleable with respect to the strong ``simulation-extractability'' flavor of non-malleability.
Furthermore, we also show that our construction can be efficiently instantiated in Minicrypt, significantly improving upon the work of Kim et al., both in terms of round complexity and computational efficiency.

2023

CRYPTO

List Oblivious Transfer and Applications to Round-Optimal Black-Box Multiparty Coin Tossing
Abstract

In this work we study the problem of minimizing the round complexity for securely evaluating multiparty functionalities while making black-box use of polynomial time assumptions. In Eurocrypt 2016, Garg et al. showed that assuming all parties have access to a broadcast channel, then at least four rounds of communication are required to securely realize non-trivial functionalities in the plain model.
A sequence of results follow-up the result of Garg et al. matching this lower bound under a variety of assumptions. Unfortunately, none of these works make black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives. In Crypto 2021, Ishai, Khurana, Sahai, and Srinivasan came closer to matching the four-round lower bound, obtaining a five-round protocol that makes black-box use of oblivious transfer and PKE with pseudorandom public keys.
In this work, we show how to realize any input-less functionality (e.g., coin-tossing, generation of key-pairs, and so on) in four rounds while making black-box use of two-round oblivious transfer. As an additional result, we construct the first four-round MPC protocol for generic functionalities that makes black-box use of the underlying primitives, achieving security against non-aborting adversaries.
Our protocols are based on a new primitive called list two-party computation. This primitive offers relaxed security compared to the standard notion of secure two-party computation. Despite this relaxation, we argue that this tool suffices for our applications. List two-party computation is of independent interest, as we argue it can also be used for the generation of setups, like oblivious transfer correlated randomness, in three rounds. Prior to our work, generating such a setup required at least four rounds of interactions or a trusted third party.

2023

TCC

Agile Cryptography: A Universally Composable Approach
Abstract

Being capable of updating cryptographic algorithms is an inevitable and essential practice in cryptographic engineering. This cryptographic agility, as it has been called, is a fundamental desideratum for long term cryptographic system security that still poses significant challenges from a modeling perspective. For instance, current formulations of agility fail to express the fundamental security that is expected to stem from timely implementation updates, namely the fact that the system retains some of its security properties provided that the update is performed prior to the deprecated implementation becoming exploited.
In this work we put forth a novel framework for expressing updateability in the context of cryptographic primitives within the universal composition model. Our updatable ideal functionality framework provides a general template for expressing the security we expect from cryptographic agility capturing in a fine grained manner all the properties that can be retained across implementation updates. We exemplify our framework over two basic cryptographic primitives, digital signatures and non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK), where we demonstrate how to achieve updateability with consistency and backwards-compatibility across updates in a composable manner. We also illustrate how our notion is a continuation of a much broader scope of the concept of agility introduced by Acar, Belenkiy, Bellare, and Cash in Eurocrypt 2010 in the context of symmetric cryptographic primitives.

2023

TCC

Broadcast-Optimal Four-Round MPC in the Plain Model
Abstract

The prior works of Cohen, Garay and Zikas (Eurocrypt 2020), Damgård, Magri, Ravi, Siniscalchi and Yakoubov (Crypto 2021) and Damgård, Ravi, Siniscalchi and Yakoubov (Eurocrypt 2023) study 2-round Multi-Party Computation (where some form of set-up is required). Motivated by the fact that broadcast is an expensive resource, they focus on so-called broadcast optimal MPC, i.e., they give tight characterizations of which security guarantees are achievable, if broadcast is available in the first round, the second round, both rounds, or not at all.
This work considers the natural question of characterizing broadcast optimal MPC in the plain model where no set-up is assumed. We focus on 4-round protocols, since 4 is known to be the minimal number of rounds required to securely realize any functionality with black-box simulation. We give a complete characterization of which security guarantees, (namely selective abort, selective identifiable abort, unanimous abort and identifiable abort) are feasible or not, depending on the exact selection of rounds in which broadcast is available.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Round-Optimal and Communication-Efficient Multiparty Computation
📺
Abstract

Typical approaches for minimizing the round complexity of multi-party computation (MPC) come at the cost of increased communication complexity (CC) or the reliance on setup assumptions. A notable exception is the recent work of Ananth et al. [TCC 2019], which used Functional Encryption (FE) combiners to obtain a round optimal (two-round) semi-honest MPC in the plain model with CC proportional to the depth and input-output length of the circuit being computed---we refer to such protocols as circuit scalable. This leaves open the question of obtaining communication efficient protocols that are secure against malicious adversaries in the plain model, which our work solves. Concretely, our two main contributions are:
1) We provide a round-preserving black-box compiler that compiles a wide class of MPC protocols into circuit-scalable maliciously secure MPC protocols in the plain model, assuming (succinct) FE combiners.
2) We provide a round-preserving black-box compiler that compiles a wide class of MPC protocols into circuit-independent --- i.e., with CC that depends only on the input-output length of the circuit---maliciously secure MPC protocols in the plain model, assuming Multi-Key Fully-Homomorphic Encryption (MFHE).
Our constructions are based on a new compiler that turns a wide class of MPC protocols into k-delayed-input function MPC protocols (a notion we introduce), where the functions to be computed is specified only in the k-th round of the protocol.
As immediate corollaries of our two compilers, we derive (1) the first round-optimal and circuit-scalable maliciously secure MPC, and (2) the first round-optimal and circuit-independent maliciously secure MPC in the plain model. The latter MPC achieves the best to-date CC for a round-optimal malicious MPC protocol. In fact, it is even communication-optimal when the output size of the function being evaluated is smaller than its input size (e.g., for boolean functions). All of our results are based on standard polynomial time assumptions.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Round-Optimal Multi-Party Computation with Identifiable Abort
📺
Abstract

Secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocols that are resilient to a dishonest majority allow the adversary to get the output of the computation while, at the same time, forcing the honest parties to abort. Aumann and Lindell introduced the enhanced notion of security with identifiable abort, which still allows the adversary to trigger an abort but, at the same time, it enables the honest parties to agree on the identity of the party that led to the abort. More recently, in Eurocrypt 2016, Garg et al. showed that, assuming access to a simultaneous message exchange channel for all the parties, at least four rounds of communication are required to securely realize non-trivial functionalities in the plain model.
Following Garg et al., a sequence of works has matched this lower bound, but none of them achieved security with identifiable abort. In this work, we close this gap and show that four rounds of communication are also sufficient to securely realize any functionality with identifiable abort using standard and generic polynomial-time assumptions. To achieve this result we introduce the new notion of bounded-rewind secure MPC that guarantees security even against an adversary that performs a mild form of reset attacks. We show how to instantiate this primitive starting from any MPC protocol and by assuming trapdoor-permutations.
The notion of bounded-rewind secure MPC allows for easier parallel composition of MPC protocols with other (interactive) cryptographic primitives. Therefore, we believe that this primitive can be useful in other contexts in which it is crucial to combine multiple primitives with MPC protocols while keeping the round complexity of the final protocol low.

2022

TCC

Four-Round Black-Box Non-Malleable Commitments from One-Way Permutations
Abstract

We construct the first four-round non-malleable commitment scheme based solely on the black-box use of one-to-one one-way functions.
Prior to our work, all non-malleable commitment schemes based on black-box use of polynomial-time cryptographic primitives require more than 16 rounds of interaction.
A key tool for our construction is a proof system that satisfies a new definition of security that we call non-malleable zero-knowledge with respect to commitments. In a nutshell, such a proof system can be safely run in parallel with any (potentially interactive) commitment scheme. We provide an instantiation of this tool using the MPC-in-the-Head approach in combination with BMR. The resulting protocol makes black-box use of one-to-one one-way functions.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Threshold Garbled Circuits and Ad Hoc Secure Computation
📺
Abstract

Garbled Circuits (GCs) represent fundamental and powerful tools in cryptography, and many variants of GCs have been considered since their introduction. An important property of the garbled circuits is that they can be evaluated securely if and only if exactly 1 key for each input wire is obtained: no less and no more. In this work we study the case when: 1) some of the wire-keys are missing, but we are still interested in computing the output of the garbled circuit and 2) the evaluator of the GC might have both keys for a constant number of wires. We start to study this question in terms of non-interactive multi-party computation (NIMPC) which is strongly connected with GCs. In this notion, there is a fixed number of parties (n) that can get correlated information from a trusted setup. Then these parties can send an encoding of their input to an evaluator, which can compute the output of the function. Similarly to the notion of ad hoc secure computation proposed by Beimel et al. [ITCS 2016], we consider the case when less than n parties participate in the online phase, and in addition we let these parties colluding with the evaluator. We refer to this notion as Threshold NIMPC.
In addition, we show that when the number of parties participating in the online phase is a fixed threshold l <= n then it is possible to securely evaluate any l-input function. We build our result on top of a new secret-sharing scheme (which can be of independent interest) and on the results proposed by Benhamouda, Krawczyk and Rabin [Crypto 2017]. Our protocol can be used to compute any function in NC1 in the information-theoretic setting and any function in P assuming one-way functions.
As a second (and main) contribution, we consider a slightly different notion of security in which the number of parties that can participate in the online phase is not specified, and can be any number c above the threshold l (in this case the evaluator cannot collude with the other parties). We solve an open question left open by Beimel, Ishai and Kushilevitz [Eurocrypt 2017] showing how to build a secure protocol for the case when c is constant, under the Learning with Errors assumption.

2021

PKC

Multi-Client Functional Encryption for Separable Functions
📺
Abstract

In this work, we provide a compiler that transforms a single-input functional encryption scheme for the class of polynomially bounded circuits
into a multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) scheme for the class of separable functions. An $n$-input function $f$ is called separable if it can be described as a list of polynomially bounded circuits $f^1,..., f^n$ s.t. $f(x_1,..., x_n)= f^1(x_1)+ ... + f^n(x_n)$ for all $x_1,..., x_n$.
Our compiler extends the works of Brakerski et al. [Eurocrypt 2016] and of Komargodski et al. [Eurocrypt 2017] in which a generic compiler is proposed to obtain multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) from single-input functional encryption. Our construction achieves the stronger notion of MCFE but for the less generic class of separable functions. Prior to our work, a long line of results has been proposed in the setting of MCFE for the inner-product functionality, which is a special case of a separable function.
We also propose a modified version of the notion of decentralized MCFE introduced by Chotard et al. [Asiacrypt 2018] that we call outsourceable mulit-client functional encryption (OMCFE). Intuitively, the notion of OMCFE makes it possible to distribute the load of the decryption procedure among at most $n$ different entities, which will return decryption shares that can be combined (e.g., additively) thus obtaining the output of the computation. This notion is especially useful in the case of a very resource consuming decryption procedure, while the combine algorithm is non-time consuming. We also show how to extend the presented MCFE protocol to obtain an OMCFE scheme for the same functionality class.

2021

TCC

Oblivious Transfer from Trapdoor Permutations in Minimal Rounds
📺
Abstract

Oblivious transfer (OT) is a foundational primitive within cryptography owing to its connection with secure computation. One of the oldest constructions of oblivious transfer was from certified trapdoor permutations (TDPs). However several decades later, we do not know if a similar construction can be obtained from TDPs in general.
In this work, we study the problem of constructing round optimal oblivious transfer from trapdoor permutations. In particular, we obtain the following new results (in the plain model) relying on TDPs in a black-box manner:
– Three-round oblivious transfer protocol that guarantees indistinguishability-security against malicious senders (and semi-honest receivers).
– Four-round oblivious transfer protocol secure against malicious adversaries with black-box simulation-based security.
By combining our second result with an already known compiler we obtain the first round-optimal 2-party computation protocol that relies in a black-box way on TDPs.
A key technical tool underlying our results is a new primitive we call dual witness encryption (DWE) that may be of independent interest.

2020

TCC

Round Optimal Secure Multiparty Computation from Minimal Assumptions
📺
Abstract

We construct a four round secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocol in the plain model that achieves security against any dishonest majority. The security of our protocol relies only on the existence of four round oblivious transfer. This culminates the long line of research on constructing round-efficient MPC from minimal assumptions (at least w.r.t. black-box simulation).

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Eurocrypt 2023
- Asiacrypt 2023
- Eurocrypt 2022
- Asiacrypt 2022
- PKC 2021

#### Coauthors

- Christian Badertscher (1)
- Vincenzo Botta (1)
- Arka Rai Choudhuri (2)
- Michele Ciampi (19)
- Ivan Damgård (1)
- Vipul Goyal (3)
- Abhishek Jain (2)
- Aggelos Kiayias (2)
- Emmanuela Orsini (2)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (9)
- Giuseppe Persiano (3)
- Divya Ravi (2)
- Alessandra Scafuro (2)
- Yu-Ching Shen (1)
- Luisa Siniscalchi (13)
- Ivan Visconti (8)
- Hendrik Waldner (4)
- Yu Xia (1)
- Sophia Yakoubov (1)
- Vassilis Zikas (1)