## CryptoDB

### Jooyoung Lee

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-5471-9350

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

TOSC

Building PRFs from TPRPs: Beyond the Block and the Tweak Length Bounds
Abstract

A secure n-bit tweakable block cipher (TBC) using t-bit tweaks can be modeled as a tweakable uniform random permutation, where each tweak defines an independent random n-bit permutation. When an input to this tweakable permutation is fixed, it can be viewed as a perfectly secure t-bit random function. On the other hand, when a tweak is fixed, it can be viewed as a perfectly secure n-bit random permutation, and it is well known that the sum of two random permutations is pseudorandom up to 2n queries.A natural question is whether one can construct a pseudorandom function (PRF) beyond the block and the tweak length bounds using a small number of calls to the underlying tweakable permutations. A straightforward way of constructing a PRF from tweakable permutations is to xor the outputs from two tweakable permutations with c bits of the input to each permutation fixed. Using the multi-user security of the sum of two permutations, one can prove that the (t + n − c)-to-n bit PRF is secure up to 2n+c queries.In this paper, we propose a family of PRF constructions based on tweakable permutations, dubbed XoTPc, achieving stronger security than the straightforward construction. XoTPc is parameterized by c, giving a (t + n − c)-to-n bit PRF. When t < 3n and c = t/3 , XoTPt/3 becomes an (n + 2t/3 )-to-n bit pseudorandom function, which is secure up to 2n+2t/3 queries. It provides security beyond the block and the tweak length bounds, making two calls to the underlying tweakable permutations. In order to prove the security of XoTPc, we extend Mirror theory to q ≫ 2n, where q is the number of equations. From a practical point of view, our construction can be used to construct TBC-based MAC finalization functions and CTR-type encryption modes with stronger provable security compared to existing schemes.

2024

TOSC

FRAST: TFHE-Friendly Cipher Based on Random S-Boxes
Abstract

A transciphering framework, also known as hybrid homomorphic encryption, is a practical method of combining a homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme with a symmetric cipher in the client-server model to reduce computational and communication overload on the client side. As a server homomorphically evaluates a symmetric cipher in this framework, new design rationales are required for “HE-friendly” ciphers that take into account the specific properties of the HE schemes. In this paper, we propose a new TFHE-friendly cipher, dubbed FRAST, with a TFHE-friendly round function based on a random S-box to minimize the number of rounds. The round function of FRAST can be efficiently evaluated in TFHE by a new optimization technique, dubbed double blind rotation. Combined with our new WoP-PBS method, the double blind rotation allows computing multiple S-box calls in the round function of FRAST at the cost of a single S-box call. In this way, FRAST enjoys 2.768 (resp. 10.57) times higher throughput compared to Kreyvium (resp. Elisabeth) for TFHE keystream evaluation in the offline phase of the transciphering framework at the cost of slightly larger communication overload.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Toward Full n-bit Security and Nonce Misuse Resistance of Block Cipher-based MACs
Abstract

In this paper, we study the security of MAC constructions among those classified by Chen {\it et al.} in ASIACRYPT '21. Precisely, $F^{\text{EDM}}_{B_2}$~(or $\ewcdm$ as named by Cogliati and Seurin in CRYPTO '16), $F^{\text{EDM}}_{B_3}$, $F^{\text{SoP}}_{B_2}$, $F^{\text{SoP}}_{B_3}$ (all as named by Chen {\it et al.}) are proved to be fully secure up to $2^n$ MAC queries in the nonce-respecting setting, improving the previous bound of $\frac{3n}{4}$-bit security. In particular, $F^{\text{SoP}}_{B_2}$ and $F^{\text{SoP}}_{B_3}$ enjoy graceful degradation as the number of queries with repeated nonces grows (when the underlying universal hash function satisfies a certain property called \emph{multi-xor-collision resistance}). To do this, we develop a new tool, namely extended Mirror theory based on two independent permutations to a wide range of $\xi_{\max}$ including inequalities.
We also present matching attacks on $F^{\text{EDM}}_{B_4}$ and $F^{\text{EDM}}_{B_5}$ using $O(2^{3n/4})$ MAC queries and $O(1)$ verification query without using repeated nonces.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Provable Security of Linux-DRBG in the Seedless Robustness Model
Abstract

This paper studies the provable security of the deterministic random bit generator~(DRBG) utilized in Linux 6.4.8, marking the first analysis of Linux-DRBG from a provable security perspective since its substantial structural changes in Linux 4 and Linux 5.17. Specifically, we prove its security up to $O(\min\{2^{\frac{n}{2}},2^{\frac{\lambda}{2}}\})$ queries in the seedless robustness model, where $n$ is the output size of the internal primitives and $\lambda$ is the min-entropy of the entropy source. Our result implies $128$-bit security given $n=256$ and $\lambda=256$ for Linux-DRBG. We also present two distinguishing attacks using $O(2^{\frac{n}{2}})$ and $O (2^{\frac{\lambda}{2}})$ queries, respectively, proving the tightness of our security bound.

2023

EUROCRYPT

XOCB: Beyond-Birthday-Bound Secure Authenticated Encryption Mode with Rate-One Computation
Abstract

We present a new block cipher mode of operation for authenticated encryption (AE), dubbed XOCB, that has the following features: (1) beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security based on standard pseudorandom assumption of the internal block cipher if the maximum block length is sufficiently smaller than the birthday bound, (2) rate-1 computation, and (3) supporting any block cipher with any key length. Namely, XOCB has effectively the same efficiency as the seminal OCB while having stronger quantitative security without any change in the security model or the required primitive in OCB. Although numerous studies have been conducted in the past, our XOCB is the first mode of operation to achieve these multiple goals simultaneously.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Rubato: Noisy Ciphers for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption
📺
Abstract

A transciphering framework converts a symmetric ciphertext into a homomorphic ciphertext on the server-side, reducing computational and communication overload on the client-side. In Asiacrypt 2021, Cho et al. proposed the RtF framework that supports approximate computation.
In this paper, we propose a family of noisy ciphers, dubbed Rubato, with a novel design strategy of introducing noise to a symmetric cipher of a low algebraic degree. With this strategy, the multiplicative complexity of the cipher is significantly reduced, compared to existing HE-friendly ciphers, without degrading the overall security. More precisely, given a moderate block size (16 to 64), Rubato enjoys a low multiplicative depth (2 to 5) and a small number of multiplications per encrypted word (2.1 to 6.25) at the cost of slightly larger ciphertext expansion (1.26 to 1.31). The security of Rubato is supported by comprehensive analysis including symmetric and LWE cryptanalysis. Compared to HERA within the RtF framework, client-side and server-side throughput is improved by 22.9% and 32.2%, respectively, at the cost of only 1.6% larger ciphertext expansion.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Multi-User Security of the Sum of Truncated Random Permutations
📺
Abstract

For several decades, constructing pseudorandom functions from pseudorandom permutations, so-called Luby-Rackoff backward construction, has been a popular cryptographic problem. Two methods are well-known and comprehensively studied for this problem: summing two random permutations and truncating partial bits of the output from a random permutation. In this paper, by combining both summation and truncation, we propose new Luby-Rackoff backward constructions, dubbed SaT1 and SaT2, respectively.
SaT2 is obtained by partially truncating output bits from the sum of two independent random permutations, and SaT1 is its single permutation-based variant using domain separation. The distinguishing advantage against SaT1 and SaT2 is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu q_max}/2^{n-0.5m}) and O({\sqrt{\mu}q_max^1.5}/2^{2n-0.5m}), respectively, in the multi-user setting, where n is the size of the underlying permutation, m is the output size of the construction, \mu is the number of users, and q_max is the maximum number of queries per user. We also prove the distinguishing advantage against a variant of XORP[3]~(studied by Bhattacharya and Nandi at Asiacrypt 2021) using independent permutations, dubbed SoP3-2, is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu} q_max^2}/2^{2.5n})$.
In the multi-user setting with \mu = O(2^{n-m}), a truncated random permutation provides only the birthday bound security, while SaT1 and SaT2 are fully secure, i.e., allowing O(2^n) queries for each user. It is the same security level as XORP[3] using three permutation calls, while SaT1 and SaT2 need only two permutation calls.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Transciphering Framework for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption
📺
Abstract

Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a promising cryptographic primitive that enables computation over encrypted data, with a variety of applications including medical, genomic, and financial tasks. In Asiacrypt 2017, Cheon et al. proposed the CKKS scheme to efficiently support approximate computation over encrypted data of real numbers. HE schemes including CKKS, nevertheless, still suffer from slow encryption speed and large ciphertext expansion compared to symmetric cryptography.
In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid framework, dubbed RtF (Real-to-Finite-field) framework, that supports CKKS. The main idea behind this construction is to combine the CKKS and the FV homomorphic encryption schemes, and use a stream cipher using modular arithmetic in between. As a result, real numbers can be encrypted without significant ciphertext expansion or computational overload on the client side.
As an instantiation of the stream cipher in our framework, we propose a new HE-friendly cipher, dubbed HERA, and extensively analyze its security and efficiency. The main feature of HERA is that it uses a simple randomized key schedule.
Compared to recent HE-friendly ciphers such as FLIP and Rasta using randomized linear layers, HERA requires a smaller number of random bits. For this reason, HERA significantly outperforms existing HE-friendly ciphers on both the client and the server sides.
With the RtF transciphering framework combined with HERA at the 128-bit security level, we achieve small ciphertext expansion ratio with a range of 1.23 to 1.54, which is at least 23 times smaller than using (symmetric) CKKS-only, assuming the same precision bits and the same level of ciphertexts at the end of the framework. We also achieve
1.6 $\mu$s and 21.7 MB/s for latency and throughput on the client side, which are 9085 times and 17.8 times faster than the CKKS-only environment, respectively.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Toward a Fully Secure Authenticated Encryption Scheme From a Pseudorandom Permutation
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme, dubbed the Synthetic Counter with Masking (SCM) mode. SCM follows the NSIV paradigm proposed by Peyrin and Seurin (CRYPTO 2016), where a keyed hash function accepts a nonce N with associated data and a message, yielding an authentication tag T, and then the message is encrypted by a counter-like mode using both T and N. Here we move one step further by encrypting nonces; in the encryption part, the inputs to the block cipher are determined by T, counters, and an encrypted nonce, and all its outputs are also masked by an (additional) encrypted nonce, yielding keystream blocks.
As a result, we obtain, for the first time, a block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme of rate 1/2 that provides n-bit security with respect to the query complexity (ignoring the influence of message length) in the nonce-respecting setting, and at the same time guarantees graceful security degradation in the faulty nonce model, when the underlying n-bit block cipher is modeled as a secure pseudorandom permutation. Seen as a slight variant of GCM-SIV, SCM is also parallelizable and inverse-free, and its performance is still comparable to GCM-SIV.

2021

TOSC

CTET+: A Beyond-Birthday-Bound Secure Tweakable Enciphering Scheme Using a Single Pseudorandom Permutation
📺
Abstract

In this work, we propose a construction of 2-round tweakable substitutionpermutation networks using a single secret S-box. This construction is based on non-linear permutation layers using independent round keys, and achieves security beyond the birthday bound in the random permutation model. When instantiated with an n-bit block cipher with ωn-bit keys, the resulting tweakable block cipher, dubbed CTET+, can be viewed as a tweakable enciphering scheme that encrypts ωκ-bit messages for any integer ω ≥ 2 using 5n + κ-bit keys and n-bit tweaks, providing 2n/3-bit security.Compared to the 2-round non-linear SPN analyzed in [CDK+18], we both minimize it by requiring a single permutation, and weaken the requirements on the middle linear layer, allowing better performance. As a result, CTET+ becomes the first tweakable enciphering scheme that provides beyond-birthday-bound security using a single permutation, while its efficiency is still comparable to existing schemes including AES-XTS, EME, XCB and TET. Furthermore, we propose a new tweakable enciphering scheme, dubbed AES6-CTET+, which is an actual instantiation of CTET+ using a reduced round AES block cipher as the underlying secret S-box. Extensivecryptanalysis of this algorithm allows us to claim 127 bits of security.Such tweakable enciphering schemes with huge block sizes become desirable in the context of disk encryption, since processing a whole sector as a single block significantly worsens the granularity for attackers when compared to, for example, AES-XTS, which treats every 16-byte block on the disk independently. Besides, as a huge amount of data is being stored and encrypted at rest under many different keys in clouds, beyond-birthday-bound security will most likely become necessary in the short term.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Tight Security Bounds for Double-block Hash-then-Sum MACs
📺
Abstract

In this work, we study the security of deterministic MAC constructions with a double-block internal state, captured by the double-block hash-then-sum (DBH) paradigm. Most DBH constructions, including PolyMAC, SUM-ECBC, PMAC-Plus, 3kf9 and LightMAC-Plus, have been proved to be pseudorandom up to 2^{2n/3} queries when they are instantiated with an n-bit block cipher, while the best known generic attacks require 2^{3n/4} queries.
We close this gap by proving the PRF-security of DBH constructions up to 2^{3n/4} queries (ignoring the maximum message length). The core of the security proof is to refine Mirror theory that systematically estimates the number of solutions to a system of equations and non-equations, and apply it to prove the security of the finalization function. Then we identify security requirements of the internal hash functions to ensure 3n/4-bit security of the resulting constructions when combined with the finalization function.
Within this framework, we prove the security of DBH whose internal hash function is given as the concatenation of a universal hash function using two independent keys. This class of constructions include PolyMAC and SUM-ECBC. Moreover, we prove the security of PMAC-Plus, 3kf9 and LightMAC-Plus up to 2^{3n/4} queries.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Improved Security Analysis for Nonce-based Enhanced Hash-then-Mask MACs
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we prove that the nonce-based enhanced hash-then-mask MAC (nEHtM) is secure up to 2^{3n/4} MAC queries and 2^n verification queries (ignoring logarithmic factors) as long as the number of faulty queries \mu is below 2^{3n/8}, significantly improving the previous bound by Dutta et al. Even when \mu goes beyond 2^{3n/8}, nEHtM enjoys graceful degradation of security.
The second result is to prove the security of PRF-based nEHtM; when nEHtM is based on an n-to-s bit random function for a fixed size s such that 1 <= s <= n, it is proved to be secure up to any number of MAC queries and 2^s verification queries, if (1) s = n and \mu < 2^{n/2} or (2) n/2 < s < 2^{n-s} and \mu < max{2^{s/2}, 2^{n-s}}, or (3) s <= n/2 and \mu < 2^{n/2}. This result leads to the security proof of truncated nEHtM that returns only s bits of the original tag since a truncated permutation can be seen as a pseudorandom function. In particular, when s <= 2n/3, the truncated nEHtM is secure up to 2^{n - s/2} MAC queries and 2^s verification queries as long as \mu < min{2^{n/2}, 2^{n-s}}. For example, when s = n/2 (resp. s = n/4), the truncated nEHtM is secure up to 2^{3n/4} (resp. 2^{7n/8}) MAC queries. So truncation might provide better provable security than the original nEHtM with respect to the number of MAC queries.

2020

TOSC

Highly Secure Nonce-based MACs from the Sum of Tweakable Block Ciphers
📺
Abstract

Tweakable block ciphers (TBCs) have proven highly useful to boost the security guarantees of authentication schemes. In 2017, Cogliati et al. proposed two MACs combining TBC and universal hash functions: a nonce-based MAC called NaT and a deterministic MAC called HaT. While both constructions provide high security, their properties are complementary: NaT is almost fully secure when nonces are respected (i.e., n-bit security, where n is the block size of the TBC, and no security degradation in terms of the number of MAC queries when nonces are unique), while its security degrades gracefully to the birthday bound (n/2 bits) when nonces are misused. HaT has n-bit security and can be used naturally as a nonce-based MAC when a message contains a nonce. However, it does not have full security even if nonces are unique.This work proposes two highly secure and efficient MACs to fill the gap: NaT2 and eHaT. Both provide (almost) full security if nonces are unique and more than n/2-bit security when nonces can repeat. Based on NaT and HaT, we aim at achieving these properties in a modular approach. Our first proposal, Nonce-as-Tweak2 (NaT2), is the sum of two NaT instances. Our second proposal, enhanced Hash-as-Tweak (eHaT), extends HaT by adding the output of an additional nonce-depending call to the TBC and prepending nonce to the message. Despite the conceptual simplicity, the security proofs are involved. For NaT2 in particular, we rely on the recent proof framework for Double-block Hash-then-Sum by Kim et al. from Eurocrypt 2020.

2020

TOSC

Forking Tweakable Even-Mansour Ciphers
📺
Abstract

A forkcipher is a keyed, tweakable function mapping an n-bit input to a 2nbit output, which is equivalent to concatenating two outputs from two permutations. A forkcipher can be a useful primitive to design authenticated encryption schemes for short messages. A forkcipher is typically designed within the iterate-fork-iterate (IFI) paradigm, while the provable security of such a construction has not been widely explored.In this paper, we propose a method of constructing a forkcipher using public permutations as its building primitives. It can be seen as applying the IFI paradigm to the tweakable Even-Mansour ciphers. So our construction is dubbed the forked tweakable Even-Mansour (FTEM) cipher. Our main result is to prove that a (1, 1)-round FTEM cipher (applying a single-round TEM to a plaintext, followed by two independent copies of a single-round TEM) is secure up to 2 2n/3 queries in the ideal permutation model.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Indifferentiability of Truncated Random Permutations
Abstract

One of natural ways of constructing a pseudorandom function from a pseudorandom permutation is to simply truncate the output of the permutation. When n is the permutation size and m is the number of truncated bits, the resulting construction is known to be indistinguishable from a random function up to $$2^{{n+m}\over 2}$$ queries, which is tight.In this paper, we study the indifferentiability of a truncated random permutation where a fixed prefix is prepended to the inputs. We prove that this construction is (regularly) indifferentiable from a public random function up to $$\min \{2^{{n+m}\over 3}, 2^{m}, 2^\ell \}$$ queries, while it is publicly indifferentiable up to $$\min \{ \max \{2^{{n+m}\over 3}, 2^{n \over 2}\}, 2^\ell \}$$ queries, where $$\ell $$ is the size of the fixed prefix. Furthermore, the regular indifferentiability bound is proved to be tight when $$m+\ell \ll n$$.Our results significantly improve upon the previous bound of $$\min \{ 2^{m \over 2}, 2^\ell \}$$ given by Dodis et al. (FSE 2009), allowing us to construct, for instance, an $$\frac{n}{2}$$-to-$$\frac{n}{2}$$ bit random function that makes a single call to an n-bit permutation, achieving $$\frac{n}{2}$$-bit security.

2018

CRYPTO

Provable Security of (Tweakable) Block Ciphers Based on Substitution-Permutation Networks
📺
Abstract

Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPNs) refer to a family of constructions which build a wn-bit block cipher from n-bit public permutations (often called S-boxes), which alternate keyless and “local” substitution steps utilizing such S-boxes, with keyed and “global” permutation steps which are non-cryptographic. Many widely deployed block ciphers are constructed based on the SPNs, but there are essentially no provable-security results about SPNs.In this work, we initiate a comprehensive study of the provable security of SPNs as (possibly tweakable) wn-bit block ciphers, when the underlying n-bit permutation is modeled as a public random permutation. When the permutation step is linear (which is the case for most existing designs), we show that 3 SPN rounds are necessary and sufficient for security. On the other hand, even 1-round SPNs can be secure when non-linearity is allowed. Moreover, 2-round non-linear SPNs can achieve “beyond-birthday” (up to
$$2^{2n/3}$$
22n/3 adversarial queries) security, and, as the number of non-linear rounds increases, our bounds are meaningful for the number of queries approaching
$$2^n$$
2n. Finally, our non-linear SPNs can be made tweakable by incorporating the tweak into the permutation layer, and provide good multi-user security.As an application, our construction can turn two public n-bit permutations (or fixed-key block ciphers) into a tweakable block cipher working on wn-bit inputs, 6n-bit key and an n-bit tweak (for any
$$w\ge 2$$
w≥2); the tweakable block cipher provides security up to
$$2^{2n/3}$$
22n/3 adversarial queries in the random permutation model, while only requiring w calls to each permutation, and 3w field multiplications for each wn-bit input.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Tweakable Block Ciphers Secure Beyond the Birthday Bound in the Ideal Cipher Model
Abstract

We propose a new construction of tweakable block ciphers from standard block ciphers. Our construction, dubbed $$\mathsf {XHX2}$$, is the cascade of two independent $$\mathsf {XHX}$$ block ciphers, so it makes two calls to the underlying block cipher using tweak-dependent keys. We prove the security of $$\mathsf {XHX2}$$ up to $$\min \{2^{2(n+m)/3},2^{n+m/2}\}$$ queries (ignoring logarithmic factors) in the ideal cipher model, when the block cipher operates on n-bit blocks using m-bit keys. The $$\mathsf {XHX2}$$ tweakable block cipher is the first construction that achieves beyond-birthday-bound security with respect to the input size of the underlying block cipher in the ideal cipher model.

2017

TOSC

New Constructions of MACs from (Tweakable) Block Ciphers
Abstract

We propose new constructions of Message Authentication Codes (MACs) from tweakable or conventional block ciphers. Our new schemes are either stateless and deterministic, nonce-based, or randomized, and provably secure either in the standard model for tweakable block cipher-based ones, or in the ideal cipher model for block cipher-based ones. All our constructions are very efficient, requiring only one call to the underlying (tweakable) block cipher in addition to universally hashing the message. Moreover, the security bounds we obtain are quite strong: they are beyond the birthday bound, and nonce-based/randomized variants provide graceful security degradation in case of misuse, i.e., the security bound degrades linearly with the maximal number of repetitions of nonces/random values.

2013

EUROCRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2024
- Eurocrypt 2023
- FSE 2023
- FSE 2022
- FSE 2020
- Asiacrypt 2020
- FSE 2019
- Asiacrypt 2019
- Asiacrypt 2017
- Asiacrypt 2015
- Asiacrypt 2014

#### Coauthors

- Frederik Armknecht (1)
- Zhenzhen Bao (1)
- Shan Chen (1)
- Jihoon Cho (1)
- Mingyu Cho (1)
- Wonseok Choi (7)
- Woohyuk Chung (2)
- Benoît Cogliati (3)
- Yuanxi Dai (1)
- Yevgeniy Dodis (1)
- Jordan Ethan (1)
- Ewan Fleischmann (1)
- Peter Gaži (1)
- Jincheol Ha (3)
- Seongha Hwang (1)
- Akiko Inoue (2)
- Jonathan Katz (1)
- Seongkwang Kim (3)
- Hwigyeom Kim (3)
- Matthias Krause (1)
- Virginie Lallemand (1)
- Rodolphe Lampe (1)
- Yeongmin Lee (7)
- Joohee Lee (1)
- ByeongHak Lee (10)
- Jooyoung Lee (27)
- Eik List (1)
- Bart Mennink (1)
- Kazuhiko Minematsu (2)
- Marine Minier (1)
- Dukjae Moon (1)
- Yusuke Naito (1)
- Eun-Gyeol Oh (1)
- Yannick Seurin (3)
- Mincheol Son (2)
- Martijn Stam (3)
- John P. Steinberger (8)
- Stefano Tessaro (1)
- Aishwarya Thiruvengadam (1)
- HyoJin Yoon (1)
- Zhe Zhang (1)