International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Frederik Armknecht

Affiliation: University of Mannheim, Germany

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2018
TOSC
Towards Low Energy Stream Ciphers
Energy optimization is an important design aspect of lightweight cryptography. Since low energy ciphers drain less battery, they are invaluable components of devices that operate on a tight energy budget such as handheld devices or RFID tags. At Asiacrypt 2015, Banik et al. presented the block cipher family Midori which was designed to optimize the energy consumed per encryption and which reduces the energy consumption by more than 30% compared to previous block ciphers. However, if one has to encrypt/decrypt longer streams of data, i.e. for bulk data encryption/decryption, it is expected that a stream cipher should perform even better than block ciphers in terms of energy required to encrypt. In this paper, we address the question of designing low energy stream ciphers. To this end, we analyze for common stream cipher design components their impact on the energy consumption. Based on this, we give arguments why indeed stream ciphers allow for encrypting long data streams with less energy than block ciphers and validate our findings by implementations. Afterwards, we use the analysis results to identify energy minimizing design principles for stream ciphers.
2016
TOSC
On Ciphers that Continuously Access the Non-Volatile Key
Vasily Mikhalev Frederik Armknecht Christian Müller
Due to the increased use of devices with restricted resources such as limited area size, power or energy, the community has developed various techniques for designing lightweight ciphers. One approach that is increasingly discussed is to use the cipher key that is stored on the device in non-volatile memory not only for the initialization of the registers but during the encryption/decryption process as well. Recent examples are the ciphers Midori (Asiacrypt’15) and Sprout (FSE’15). This may on the one hand help to save resources, but also may allow for a stronger key involvement and hence higher security. However, only little is publicly known so far if and to what extent this approach is indeed practical. Thus, cryptographers without strong engineering background face the problem that they cannot evaluate whether certain designs are reasonable (from a practical point of view) which hinders the development of new designs.In this work, we investigate this design principle from a practical point of view. After a discussion on reasonable approaches for storing a key in non-volatile memory, motivated by several commercial products we focus on the case that the key is stored in EEPROM. Here, we highlight existing constraints and derive that some designs, based on the impact on their throughput, are better suited for the approach of continuously reading the key from all types of non-volatile memory. Based on these findings, we improve the design of Sprout for proposing a new lightweight stream cipher that (i) has a significantly smaller area size than almost all other stream ciphers and (ii) can be efficiently realized using common non-volatile memory techniques. Hence, we see our work as an important step towards putting such designs on a more solid ground and to initiate further discussions on realistic designs.
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2014
PKC
2014
EPRINT
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
EPRINT
Using the Inhomogeneous Simultaneous Approximation Problem for Cryptographic Design
Frederik Armknecht Carsten Elsner Martin Schmidt
Since the introduction of the concept of provable security, there has been the steady search for suitable problems that can be used as a foundation for cryptographic schemes. Indeed, identifying such problems is a challenging task. First, it should allow to build cryptographic applications on top of them. Second, it should be open and investigated for a long time to make its hardness assumption plausible. Third, it should be easy to construct hard problem instances. Not surprisingly, only a few problems are known today that satisfy all conditions, e.g., factorization, discrete logarithm, and lattice problems. In this work, we investigate another candidate: the Inhomogeneous Simultaneous Approximation Problem (ISAP), an old problem from the field of analytic number theory. Although this problem is already known in cryptography, it has mainly been considered for attacks while we take a look at its hardness and applicability for cryptographic design. More precisely, we define a decisional problem related to ISAP, called DISAP, and show that it is NP-complete. As a starting point for concrete parameter ranges, we review the hardness of a related problem, being a computational and homogeneous variant of DISAP. Regarding the applicability, we describe as a proof of concept a bit commitment scheme where the hiding property is directly reducible to DISAP. An implementation confirms its usability in principle (e.g., size of one commitment is slightly more than 6 KB and execution time is in the milliseconds). From our point of view, DISAP is an interesting problem that can be used for cryptographic designs. We hope to encourage further research on (D)ISAP in particular and possibly other problems from analytic number theory in general.
2009
ASIACRYPT
2008
EPRINT
A New Approach for Algebraically Homomorphic Encryption
Frederik Armknecht Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi
The existence of an efficient and provably secure algebraically homomorphic scheme (AHS), i.e., one that supports both addition and multiplication operations, is a long stated open problem. All proposals so far are either insecure or not provable secure, inefficient, or allow only for one multiplication (and arbitrary additions). As only very limited progress has been made on the existing approaches in the recent years, the question arises whether new methods can lead to more satisfactory solutions. In this paper we show how to construct a provably secure AHS based on a coding theory problem. It allows for arbitrary many additions and for a fixed, but arbitrary number of multiplications and works over arbitrary finite fields. Besides, it possesses some useful properties: i) the plaintext space can be extended adaptively without the need for re-encryption, ii) it operates over arbitrary infinite fields as well, e.g., rational numbers, but the hardness of the underlying decoding problem in such cases is less studied, and iii) depending on the parameter choice, the scheme has inherent error-correcting up to a certain number of transmission errors in the ciphertext. However, since our scheme is symmetric and its ciphertext size grows exponentially with the expected total number of encryptions, its deployment is limited to specific client-server-applications with few number of multiplications. Nevertheless, we believe room for improvement due to the huge number of alternative coding schemes that can serve as the underlying hardness problem. For these reasons and because of the interesting properties of our scheme, we believe that using coding theory to design AHS is a promising approach and hope to encourage further investigations.
2006
EUROCRYPT
2004
FSE
2004
EPRINT
On the Existence of low-degree Equations for Algebraic Attacks
Frederik Armknecht
Algebraic attacks on block ciphers and stream ciphers have gained more and more attention in cryptography. The idea is to express a cipher by a system of equations whose solution reveals the secret key. The complexity of an algebraic attack is closely related to the degree of the equations. Hence, low-degree equations are crucial for algebraic attacks. So far, the existence of low-degree equations for simple combiners, combiners with memory and S-boxes was treated independently. In this paper, we unify these approaches by reducing them to the same problem: finding low-degree annihilators. This enables a systematic treatment and implies a general criterion for the existence of low-degree equations. The unification allows to extend former results to all three cases. Therefore, we repeat an algorithm for finding a generating set of all low-degree equations. Additionally, we introduce a new improved version, adapted to specific keystream generators (e.g., for the Bluetooth keystream generator). Finally, we describe for certain cases an upper and a lower bound for the lowest possible degree. To the best of our knowledge, the upper bound has only been presented in the context of keystream generators before and the lower bound was not published previously.
2004
EPRINT
Extending the Resynchronization Attack
Frederik Armknecht Joseph Lano Bart Preneel
Synchronous stream ciphers need perfect synchronization between sender and receiver. In practical applications, this is ensured by a resync mechanism. Daemen et al first described attacks on ciphers using such a resync mechanism. In this paper, we extend their attacks in several ways by combining the standard attack with several cryptanalytic techniques such as algebraic attacks and linear cryptanalysis. Our results show that using linear resync mechanisms should be avoided, and give lower bounds for the nonlinearity required from a secure resync mechanism.
2003
CRYPTO
2002
EPRINT
A Linearization Attack on the Bluetooth Key Stream Generator
Frederik Armknecht
In this paper we propose an attack on the key stream generator underlying the encryption system $E_0$ used in the Bluetooth specification. We show that the initial value can be recovered by solving a system of nonlinear equations of degree 4 over the finite field GF(2). This system of equations can be transformed by linearization into a system of linear equations with at most $2^{24.056}$ unknowns. To our knowledge, this is the best attack on the key stream generator underlying the $\mbox{E}_0$ yet.

Program Committees

FSE 2020
FSE 2019
FSE 2018
FSE 2017
FSE 2014
Eurocrypt 2013
FSE 2008
FSE 2007