International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Hwigyeom Kim


Multi-User Security of the Sum of Truncated Random Permutations 📺
For several decades, constructing pseudorandom functions from pseudorandom permutations, so-called Luby-Rackoff backward construction, has been a popular cryptographic problem. Two methods are well-known and comprehensively studied for this problem: summing two random permutations and truncating partial bits of the output from a random permutation. In this paper, by combining both summation and truncation, we propose new Luby-Rackoff backward constructions, dubbed SaT1 and SaT2, respectively. SaT2 is obtained by partially truncating output bits from the sum of two independent random permutations, and SaT1 is its single permutation-based variant using domain separation. The distinguishing advantage against SaT1 and SaT2 is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu q_max}/2^{n-0.5m}) and O({\sqrt{\mu}q_max^1.5}/2^{2n-0.5m}), respectively, in the multi-user setting, where n is the size of the underlying permutation, m is the output size of the construction, \mu is the number of users, and q_max is the maximum number of queries per user. We also prove the distinguishing advantage against a variant of XORP[3]~(studied by Bhattacharya and Nandi at Asiacrypt 2021) using independent permutations, dubbed SoP3-2, is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu} q_max^2}/2^{2.5n})$. In the multi-user setting with \mu = O(2^{n-m}), a truncated random permutation provides only the birthday bound security, while SaT1 and SaT2 are fully secure, i.e., allowing O(2^n) queries for each user. It is the same security level as XORP[3] using three permutation calls, while SaT1 and SaT2 need only two permutation calls.
Forking Tweakable Even-Mansour Ciphers 📺
Hwigyeom Kim Yeongmin Lee Jooyoung Lee
A forkcipher is a keyed, tweakable function mapping an n-bit input to a 2nbit output, which is equivalent to concatenating two outputs from two permutations. A forkcipher can be a useful primitive to design authenticated encryption schemes for short messages. A forkcipher is typically designed within the iterate-fork-iterate (IFI) paradigm, while the provable security of such a construction has not been widely explored.In this paper, we propose a method of constructing a forkcipher using public permutations as its building primitives. It can be seen as applying the IFI paradigm to the tweakable Even-Mansour ciphers. So our construction is dubbed the forked tweakable Even-Mansour (FTEM) cipher. Our main result is to prove that a (1, 1)-round FTEM cipher (applying a single-round TEM to a plaintext, followed by two independent copies of a single-round TEM) is secure up to 2 2n/3 queries in the ideal permutation model.


Wonseok Choi (1)
Yeongmin Lee (2)
Jooyoung Lee (2)