International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Juan A. Garay

Affiliation: Texas A&M University

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
PKC
Bootstrapping the Blockchain, with Applications to Consensus and Fast PKI Setup
The Bitcoin backbone protocol (Eurocrypt 2015) extracts basic properties of Bitcoin’s underlying blockchain data structure, such as “common prefix” and “chain quality,” and shows how fundamental applications including consensus and a robust public transaction ledger can be built on top of them. The underlying assumptions are “proofs of work” (POWs), adversarial hashing power strictly less than 1/2 and no adversarial pre-computation—or, alternatively, the existence of an unpredictable “genesis” block.In this paper we first show how to remove the latter assumption, presenting a “bootstrapped” Bitcoin-like blockchain protocol relying on POWs that builds genesis blocks “from scratch” in the presence of adversarial pre-computation. Importantly, the round complexity of the genesis block generation process is independent of the number of participants.Next, we consider applications of our construction, including a PKI generation protocol and a consensus protocol without trusted setup assuming an honest majority (in terms of computational power). Previous results in the same setting (unauthenticated parties, no trusted setup, POWs) required a round complexity linear in the number of participants.
2017
CRYPTO
2017
CRYPTO
2016
CRYPTO
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
JOFC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2011
JOFC
2010
EUROCRYPT
2009
CRYPTO
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EPRINT
Sound and Fine-grain Specification of Cryptographic Tasks
The Universal Composability (UC) framework, introduced by Canetti, allows for the design of cryptographic protocols satisfying strong security properties, such as non-malleability and preservation of security under (concurrent) composition. In the UC framework (as in several other frameworks), the security of a protocol carrying out a given task is formulated via the ``trusted-party paradigm,'' where the protocol execution is compared with an ideal process where the outputs are computed by a trusted party that sees all the inputs. A protocol is said to securely carry out a given task if running the protocol with a realistic adversary amounts to ``emulating'' the ideal process with the appropriate trusted party. In the UC framework the program run by the trusted party is called an {\em ideal functionality}. However, while this simulation-based security formulation provides strong security guarantees, its usefulness is contingent on the properties and correct specification of the realized ideal functionality, which, as demonstrated in recent years by the coexistence of complex, multiple functionalities for the same task as well as by their ``unstable'' nature, does not seem to be an easy task. On the other hand, the more traditional, {\em gamed-based} definitions of cryptographic tasks, although providing a less satisfying level of security (stand-alone executions, or executions in very controlled settings), have been successful in terms of formalizing as well as capturing the underlying task's natural properties. In this paper we address this gap in the security modeling of cryptographic properties, and introduce a general methodology for translating game-based definitions of properties of cryptographic tasks to syntactically concise ideal functionality programs. Moreover, taking advantage of a suitable algebraic structure of the space of our ideal functionality programs, we are able to ``accumulate'' ideal functionalities based on many different game-based security notions. In this way, we can obtain a well-defined mapping of all the game-based security properties of a cryptographic task to its corresponding UC counterpart. In addition, the methodology allows us to ``debug'' existing ideal functionalities, establish relations between them, and make some critical observations about the modeling of the ideal process in the UC framework. We demonstrate the power of our approach by applying our methodology to a variety of basic cryptographic tasks, including commitments, digital signatures, public-key encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, and oblivious transfer. Instrumental in our translation methodology is the new notion of a {\em canonical functionality class} for a cryptographic task which is endowed with a bounded semilattice structure. This structure allows the grading of ideal functionalities according to the level of security they offer as well as their natural joining, enabling the modular combination of security properties.
2008
EPRINT
Somewhat Non-Committing Encryption and Efficient Adaptively Secure Oblivious Transfer
Designing efficient cryptographic protocols tolerating adaptive adversaries, who are able to corrupt parties on the fly as the computation proceeds, has been an elusive task. Indeed, thus far no \emph{efficient} protocols achieve adaptive security for general multi-party computation, or even for many specific two-party tasks such as oblivious transfer (OT). In fact, it is difficult and expensive to achieve adaptive security even for the task of \emph{secure communication}, which is arguably the most basic task in cryptography. In this paper we make progress in this area. First, we introduce a new notion called \emph{semi-adaptive} security which is slightly stronger than static security but \emph{significantly weaker than fully adaptive security}. The main difference between adaptive and semi-adaptive security is that, for semi-adaptive security, the simulator is not required to handle the case where \emph{both} parties start out honest and one becomes corrupted later on during the protocol execution. As such, semi-adaptive security is much easier to achieve than fully adaptive security. We then give a simple, generic protocol compiler which transforms any semi-adaptively secure protocol into a fully adaptively secure one. The compilation effectively decomposes the problem of adaptive security into two (simpler) problems which can be tackled separately: the problem of semi-adaptive security and the problem of realizing a weaker variant of secure channels. We solve the latter problem by means of a new primitive that we call {\em somewhat non-committing encryption} resulting in significant efficiency improvements over the standard method for realizing (fully) secure channels using (fully) non-committing encryption. Somewhat non-committing encryption has two parameters: an equivocality parameter $\ell$ (measuring the number of ways that a ciphertext can be ``opened'') and the message sizes $k$. Our implementation is very efficient for small values $\ell$, \emph{even} when $k$ is large. This translates into a very efficient compilation of many semi-adaptively secure protocols (in particular, for a task with small input/output domains such as bit-OT) into a fully adaptively secure protocol. Finally, we showcase our methodology by applying it to the recent Oblivious Transfer protocol by Peikert \etal\ [Crypto 2008], which is only secure against static corruptions, to obtain the first efficient (expected-constant round, expected-constant number of public-key operations), adaptively secure and composable bit-OT protocol.
2007
PKC
2007
TCC
2007
EPRINT
Almost-everywhere Secure Computation
Juan A. Garay Rafail Ostrovsky
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a central problem in cryptography. Unfortunately, it is well known that MPC is possible if and only if the underlying communication network has very large connectivity---specifically, $\Omega(t)$, where $t$ is the number of potential corruptions in the network. This impossibility result renders existing MPC results far less applicable in practice, since most deployed networks have in fact a very small degree. In this paper, we show how to circumvent this impossibility result and achieve meaningful security guarantees for graphs with small degree (such as expander graphs and several other topologies). In fact, the notion we introduce, which we call {\em almost-everywhere MPC}, building on the notion of almost-everywhere agreement due to Dwork, Peleg, Pippenger and Upfal, allows the degree of the network to be much smaller than the total number of allowed corruptions. In essence, our definition allows the adversary to {\em implicitly} wiretap some of the good nodes by corrupting sufficiently many nodes in the ``neighborhood'' of those nodes. We show protocols that satisfy our new definition, retaining both correctness and privacy for most nodes despite small connectivity, no matter how the adversary chooses his corruptions. Instrumental in our constructions is a new model and protocol for the {\em secure message transmission} (SMT) problem, which we call {\em SMT by public discussion}, and which we use for the establishment of pairwise secure channels in limited connectivity networks.
2006
TCC
2006
TCC
2006
JOFC
2006
EPRINT
Searchable Symmetric Encryption: Improved Definitions and Efficient Constructions
Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) allows a party to outsource the storage of his data to another party in a private manner, while maintaining the ability to selectively search over it. This problem has been the focus of active research and several security definitions and constructions have been proposed. In this paper we review existing security definitions, pointing out their shortcomings, and propose two new stronger definitions which we prove equivalent. We then present two constructions that we show secure under our new definitions. Interestingly, in addition to satisfying stronger security guarantees, our constructions are more efficient than all previous constructions. Further, prior work on SSE only considered the setting where only the owner of the data is capable of submitting search queries. We consider the natural extension where an arbitrary group of parties other than the owner can submit search queries. We formally define SSE in this multi-user setting, and present an efficient construction.
2005
JOFC
2005
EPRINT
Resource Fairness and Composability of Cryptographic Protocols
We introduce the notion of {\em resource-fair} protocols. Informally, this property states that if one party learns the output of the protocol, then so can all other parties, as long as they expend roughly the same amount of resources. As opposed to similar previously proposed definitions, our definition follows the standard simulation paradigm and enjoys strong composability properties. In particular, our definition is similar to the security definition in the universal composability (UC) framework, but works in a model that allows any party to request additional resources from the environment to deal with dishonest parties that may prematurely abort. In this model we specify the ideally fair functionality as allowing parties to ``invest resources'' in return for outputs, but in such an event offering all other parties a fair deal. (The formulation of fair dealings is kept independent of any particular functionality, by defining it using a ``wrapper.'') Thus, by relaxing the notion of fairness, we avoid a well-known impossibility result for fair multi-party computation with corrupted majority; in particular, our definition admits constructions that tolerate arbitrary number of corruptions. We also show that, as in the UC framework, protocols in our framework may be arbitrarily and concurrently composed. Turning to constructions, we define a ``commit-prove-fair-open'' functionality and design an efficient resource-fair protocol that securely realizes it, using a new variant of a cryptographic primitive known as ``time-lines.'' With (the fairly wrapped version of) this functionality we show that some of the existing secure multi-party computation protocols can be easily transformed into resource-fair protocols while preserving their security.
2004
TCC
2004
EPRINT
Efficient and Secure Multi-Party Computation with Faulty Majority and Complete Fairness
Juan A. Garay Philip MacKenzie Ke Yang
We study the problem of constructing secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocols that are {\em completely fair} --- meaning that either all the parties learn the output of the function, or nobody does --- even when a majority of the parties are corrupted. We first propose a framework for fair multi-party computation, within which we formulate a definition of secure and fair protocols. The definition follows the standard simulation paradigm, but is modified to allow the protocol to depend on the runing time of the adversary. In this way, we avoid a well-known impossibility result for fair MPC with corrupted majority; in particular, our definition admits constructions that tolerate up to $(n-1)$ corruptions, where $n$ is the total number of parties. Next, we define a ``commit-prove-fair-open'' functionality and construct an efficient protocol that realizes it, using a new variant of a cryptographic primitive known as ``time-lines.'' With this functionality, we show that some of the existing secure MPC protocols can be easily transformed into fair protocols while preserving their security. Putting these results together, we construct efficient, secure MPC protocols that are completely fair even in the presence of corrupted majorities. Furthermore, these protocols remain secure when arbitrarily composed with any protocols, which means, in particular, that they are concurrently-composable and non-malleable. Finally, as an example of our results, we show a very efficient protocol that fairly and securely solves the socialist millionaires' problem.
2004
EPRINT
Efficient and Universally Composable Committed Oblivious Transfer and Applications
Committed Oblivious Transfer (COT) is a useful cryptographic primitive that combines the functionalities of bit commitment and oblivious transfer. In this paper, we introduce an extended version of COT (ECOT) which additionally allows proofs of relations among committed bits, and we construct an efficient protocol that securely realizes an ECOT functionality in the universal-composability (UC) framework in the common reference string (CRS) model. Our construction is more efficient than previous (non-UC) constructions of COT, involving only a constant number of exponentiations and communication rounds. Using the ECOT functionality as a building block, we construct efficient UC protocols for general two-party and multi-party functionalities (in the CRS model), each gate requiring a constant number of ECOT's.
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
EPRINT
Strengthening Zero-Knowledge Protocols using Signatures
Juan A. Garay Philip MacKenzie Ke Yang
Recently there has been an interest in zero-knowledge protocols with stronger properties, such as concurrency, unbounded simulation soundness, non-malleability, and universal composability. In this paper, we show a novel technique to convert a large class of existing honest-verifier zero-knowledge protocols into ones with these stronger properties in the common reference string model. More precisely, our technique utilizes a signature scheme existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen-message attacks, and transforms any $\Sigma$-protocol (which is honest-verifier zero-knowledge) into an unbounded simulation sound concurrent zero-knowledge protocol. We also introduce $\Omega$-protocols, a variant of $\Sigma$-protocols for which our technique further achieves the properties of non-malleability and/or universal composability. In addition to its conceptual simplicity, a main advantage of this new technique over previous ones is that it avoids the Cook-Levin theorem, which tends to be rather inefficient. Indeed, our technique allows for very efficient instantiation based on the security of some efficient signature schemes and standard number-theoretic assumptions. For instance, one instantiation of our technique yields a universally composable zero-knowledge protocol under the Strong RSA assumption, incurring an overhead of a small constant number of exponentiations, plus the generation of two signatures.
2003
EPRINT
Timed Fair Exchange of Standard Signatures
Juan A. Garay Carl Pomerance
In this paper we show how to achieve timed fair exchange of digital signatures of standard type. Timed fair exchange (in particular, contract signing) has been considered before, but only for Rabin and RSA signatures of a special kind. Our construction follows the gradual release paradigm, and works on a new ``time'' structure that we call a {\em mirrored time-line.} Using this structure, we design a protocol for the timed fair exchange by two parties of arbitrary values (values lying on their respective mirrored time-lines). Finally, we apply the blinding techniques of Garay and Jakobsson to turn this protocol into a protocol for the timed fair exchange of standard signatures. The length of these mirrored time-lines makes another problem apparent, which is making sure that the underlying sequence has a period large enough so that cycling is not observed. We also show how to construct these structures so that, under reasonable assumptions, this is indeed the case.
2002
EPRINT
Timed Release of Standard Digital Signatures
Juan Garay Markus Jakobsson
In this paper we investigate the timed release of standard digital signatures, and demonstrate how to do it for RSA, Schnorr and DSA signatures. Such signatures, once released, cannot be distinguished from signatures of the same type obtained without a timed release, making it transparent to an observer of the end result. While previous work has allowed timed release of signatures, these have not been standard, but special-purpose signatures. Building on the recent work by Boneh and Naor on timed commitments, we introduce the notion of a reusable time-line, which, besides allowing the release of standard signatures, lowers the session costs of existing timed applications.
2002
EPRINT
Efficient and Player-Optimal Strong Consensus
Matthias Fitzi Juan A. Garay
In the {\em strong consensus} problem, $n$ players attempt to reach agreement on a value initially held by {\em one of the good players}, despite the (malicious) behavior of up to $t$ of them. Although the problem is closely related to the standard consensus problem (aka Byzantine agreement), the only known solution with the optimal number of players requires exponential computation and communication in the unconditional setting. In this paper we study this problem, and present {\em efficient} protocols and tight lower bounds for several standard distributed computation models --- unconditional, computational, synchronous, and asynchronous.
2001
CRYPTO
2000
CRYPTO
1999
CRYPTO
1998
EUROCRYPT
1998
EPRINT
Fast Batch Verification for Modular Exponentiation and Digital Signatures
Mihir Bellare Juan A. Garay Tal Rabin
Many tasks in cryptography (e.g., digital signature verification) call for verification of a basic operation like modular exponentiation in some group: given (g,x,y) check that g<sup>x</sup>=y. This is typically done by re-computing g<sup>x</sup> and checking we get y. We would like to do it differently, and faster. The approach we use is batching. Focusing first on the basic modular exponentiation operation, we provide some probabilistic batch verifiers, or tests, that verify a sequence of modular exponentiations significantly faster than the naive re-computation method. This yields speedups for several verification tasks that involve modular exponentiations. Focusing specifically on digital signatures, we then suggest a weaker notion of (batch) verification which we call ``screening.'' It seems useful for many usages of signatures, and has the advantage that it can be done very fast; in particular, we show how to screen a sequence of RSA signatures at the cost of one RSA verification plus hashing.
1998
EPRINT
Secure Distributed Storage and Retrieval
In his well-known Information Dispersal Algorithm paper, Rabin showed a way to distribute information in n pieces among n servers in such a way that recovery of the information is possible in the presence of up to t inactive servers. An enhanced mechanism to enable construction in the presence of malicious faults, which can intentionally modify their pieces of the information, was later presented by Krawczyk. Yet, these methods assume that the malicious faults occur only at reconstruction time. <P> In this paper we address the more general problem of secure storage and retrieval of information (SSRI), and guarantee that also the process of storing the information is correct even when some of the servers fail. Our protocols achieve this while maintaining the (asymptotical) space optimality of the above methods. <P> We also consider SSRI with the added requirement of confidentiality, by which no party except for the rightful owner of the information is able to learn anything about it. This is achieved through novel applications of cryptographic techniques, such as the distributed generation of receipts, distributed key management via threshold cryptography, and ``blinding.'' <P> An interesting byproduct of our scheme is the construction of a secret sharing scheme with shorter shares size in the amortized sense. An immediate practical application of our work is a system for the secure deposit of sensitive data. We also extend SSRI to a ``proactive'' setting, where an adversary may corrupt all the servers during the lifetime of the system, but only a fraction during any given time interval.

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2019
Eurocrypt 2016
Crypto 2014 (Program chair)
Crypto 2013 (Program chair)
Crypto 2012
TCC 2011
PKC 2009
PKC 2008
PKC 2007
Eurocrypt 2006
PKC 2006
PKC 2005
Eurocrypt 2004
Eurocrypt 2003
Crypto 2002