International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Binyi Chen

Affiliation: University of California, Santa Barbara


Continuous Space-Bounded Non-malleable Codes from Stronger Proofs-of-Space
Non-malleable codes are encoding schemes that provide protections against various classes of tampering attacks. Recently Faust et al. (CRYPTO 2017) initiated the study of space-bounded non-malleable codes that provide such protections against tampering within small-space devices. They put forward a construction based on any non-interactive proof-of-space(NIPoS). However, the scheme only protects against an a priori bounded number of tampering attacks.We construct non-malleable codes that are resilient to an unbounded polynomial number of space-bounded tamperings. Towards that we introduce a stronger variant of $$\text {NIPoS}$$ called proof-extractable$$\text {NIPoS}$$ ($$\text {PExt-NIPoS}$$), and propose two approaches of constructing such a primitive. Using a new proof strategy we show that the generic encoding scheme of Faust et al. achieves unbounded tamper-resilience when instantiated with a $$\text {PExt-NIPoS}$$. We show two methods to construct $$\text {PExt-NIPoS}$$:1.The first method uses a special family of “memory-hard” graphs, called challenge-hard graphs (CHG), a notion we introduce here. We instantiate such family of graphs based on an extension of stack of localized expanders (first used by Ren and Devadas in the context of proof-of-space). In addition, we show that the graph construction used as a building block for the proof-of-space by Dziembowski et al. (CRYPTO 2015) satisfies challenge-hardness as well. These two CHG-instantiations lead to continuous space-bounded NMC with different features in the random oracle model.2.Our second instantiation relies on a new measurable property, called uniqueness of $$\text {NIPoS}$$. We show that standard extractability can be upgraded to proof-extractability if the $$\text {NIPoS}$$ also has uniqueness. We propose a simple heuristic construction of $$\text {NIPoS}$$, that achieves (partial) uniqueness, based on a candidate memory-hard function in the standard model and a publicly verifiable computation with small-space verification. Instantiating the encoding scheme of Faust et al. with this $$\text {NIPoS}$$, we obtain a continuous space-bounded NMC that supports the “most practical” parameters, complementing the provably secure but “relatively impractical” CHG-based constructions. Additionally, we revisit the construction of Faust et al. and observe that due to the lack of uniqueness of their $$\text {NIPoS}$$, the resulting encoding schemes yield “highly impractical” parameters in the continuous setting. We conclude the paper with a comparative study of all our non-malleable code constructions with an estimation of concrete parameters.
Memory-Hard Functions from Cryptographic Primitives
Binyi Chen Stefano Tessaro
Memory-hard functions (MHFs) are moderately-hard functions which enforce evaluation costs both in terms of time and memory (often, in form of a trade-off). They are used e.g. for password protection, password-based key-derivation, and within cryptocurrencies, and have received a considerable amount of theoretical scrutiny over the last few years. However, analyses see MHFs as modes of operation of some underlying hash function $$\mathcal {H}$$, modeled as a monolithic random oracle. This is however a very strong assumption, as such hash functions are built from much simpler primitives, following somewhat ad-hoc design paradigms.This paper initiates the study of how to securely instantiate $$\mathcal {H}$$ within MHF designs using common cryptographic primitives like block ciphers, compression functions, and permutations. Security here will be in a model in which the adversary has parallel access to an idealized version of the underlying primitive. We will provide provably memory-hard constructions from all the aforementioned primitives. Our results are generic, in that we will rely on hard-to-pebble graphs designed in prior works to obtain our constructions.One particular challenge we encounter is that $$\mathcal {H}$$ is usually required to have large outputs (to increase memory hardness without changing the description size of MHFs), whereas the underlying primitives generally have small output sizes.