International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Tzachy Reinman


Oblivious RAM Revisited
Benny Pinkas Tzachy Reinman
We reinvestigate the oblivious RAM concept introduced by Goldreich and Ostrovsky, which enables a client, that can store locally only a constant amount of data, to store remotely $n$ data items, and access them while hiding the identities of the items which are being accessed. Oblivious RAM is often cited as a powerful tool, which can be used, for example, for search on encrypted data or for preventing cache attacks. However, oblivious RAM it is also commonly considered to be impractical due to its overhead, which is asymptotically efficient but is quite high: each data request is replaced by $O(\log^4 n)$ requests, or by $O(\log^3 n)$ requests where the constant in the ``$O$'' notation is a few thousands. In addition, $O(n \log n)$ external memory is required in order to store the $n$ data items. We redesign the oblivious RAM protocol using modern tools, namely Cuckoo hashing and a new oblivious sorting algorithm. The resulting protocol uses only $O(n)$ external memory, and replaces each data request by only $O(\log^2 n)$ requests (with a small constant). This analysis is validated by experiments that we ran.
Analysis of the Linux Random Number Generator
Zvi Gutterman Benny Pinkas Tzachy Reinman
Linux is the most popular open source project. The Linux random number generator is part of the kernel of all Linux distributions and is based on generating randomness from entropy of operating system events. The output of this generator is used for almost every security protocol, including TLS/SSL key generation, choosing TCP sequence numbers, and file system and email encryption. Although the generator is part of an open source project, its source code (about $2500$ lines of code) is poorly documented, and patched with hundreds of code patches. We used dynamic and static reverse engineering to learn the operation of this generator. This paper presents a description of the underlying algorithms and exposes several security vulnerabilities. In particular, we show an attack on the forward security of the generator which enables an adversary who exposes the state of the generator to compute previous states and outputs. In addition we present a few cryptographic flaws in the design of the generator, as well as measurements of the actual entropy collected by it, and a critical analysis of the use of the generator in Linux distributions on disk-less devices.


Zvi Gutterman (1)
Benny Pinkas (4)