## CryptoDB

### Keisuke Tanaka

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

JOFC

Obfustopia Built on Secret-Key Functional Encryption
Abstract

We show that indistinguishability obfuscation (IO) for all circuits can be constructed solely from secret-key functional encryption (SKFE). In the construction, SKFE needs to be secure against an unbounded number of functional key queries, that is, collusion-resistant. Our strategy is to replace public-key functional encryption (PKFE) in the construction of IO proposed by Bitansky and Vaikuntanathan (FOCS 2015) with puncturable SKFE . Bitansky and Vaikuntanathan introduced the notion of puncturable SKFE and observed that the strategy works. However, it has not been clear whether we can construct puncturable SKFE without assuming PKFE. In particular, it has not been known whether puncturable SKFE can be constructed from standard SKFE. In this work, we show that a relaxed variant of puncturable SKFE can be constructed from collusion-resistant SKFE. Moreover, we show that the relaxed variant of puncturable SKFE is sufficient for constructing IO. Ananth and Jain (CRYPTO 2015) also proposed an IO construction from PKFE. However, their strategy is different from that of Biransky and Vaikuntanathan. In addition, we also study the relation of collusion-resistance and succinctness for SKFE. Functional encryption is said to be weakly succinct if the size of its encryption circuit is sub-linear in the size of functions. We show that collusion-resistant SKFE can be constructed from weakly succinct SKFE supporting only one functional key. By combining the above two results, we show that IO for all circuits can be constructed from weakly succinct SKFE supporting only one functional key.

2022

JOFC

CCA Security and Trapdoor Functions via Key-Dependent-Message Security
Abstract

We study the relationship among public-key encryption (PKE) satisfying indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks (IND-CPA security), that against chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA security), and trapdoor functions (TDF). Specifically, we aim at finding a unified approach and some additional requirement to realize IND-CCA secure PKE and TDF based on IND-CPA secure PKE, and show the following two main results. As the first main result, we show how to achieve IND-CCA security via a weak form of key-dependent-message (KDM) security. More specifically, we construct an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a secret-key encryption (SKE) scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions (projection-KDM security). Projection functions are elementary functions with respect to which KDM security has been widely studied. Since the existence of projection-KDM secure PKE implies that of the above two building blocks, as a corollary of this result, we see that the existence of IND-CCA secure PKE is implied by that of projection-KDM secure PKE. As the second main result, we extend the above construction of IND-CCA secure PKE into that of TDF by additionally requiring a mild requirement for each building block. Our TDF satisfies adaptive one-wayness. We can instantiate our TDF based on a wide variety of computational assumptions. Especially, we obtain the first TDF (with adaptive one-wayness) based on the sub-exponential hardness of the constant-noise learning-parity-with-noise (LPN) problem. In addition, we show that by extending the above constructions, we can obtain PKE schemes satisfying advanced security notions under CCA, that is, optimal rate leakage-resilience under CCA and selective-opening security under CCA. As a result, we obtain the first PKE schemes satisfying these security notions based on the computational Diffie–Hellman (CDH) assumption or the low-noise LPN assumption.

2021

PKC

Impossibility on Tamper-Resilient Cryptography with Uniqueness Properties
📺
Abstract

In this work, we show negative results on the tamper-resilience of a wide class of cryptographic primitives with uniqueness properties, such as unique signatures, verifiable random functions, signatures with unique keys, injective one-way functions, and encryption schemes with a property we call unique-message property. Concretely, we prove that for these primitives, it is impossible to derive their (even extremely weak) tamper-resilience from any common assumption, via black-box reductions. Our proofs exploit the simulatable attack paradigm proposed by Wichs (ITCS ’13), and the tampering model we treat is the plain model, where there is no trusted setup.

2021

JOFC

Simple and Generic Constructions of Succinct Functional Encryption
Abstract

We propose simple generic constructions of succinct functional encryption. Our key tool is strong exponentially efficient indistinguishability obfuscator (SXIO), which is the same as indistinguishability obfuscator (IO) except that the size of an obfuscated circuit and the running time of an obfuscator are slightly smaller than that of a brute-force canonicalizer that outputs the entire truth table of a circuit to be obfuscated. A “compression factor” of SXIO indicates how much SXIO compresses the brute-force canonicalizer. In this study, we propose a significantly simple framework to construct succinct functional encryption via SXIO and show that SXIO is powerful enough to achieve cutting-edge cryptography. In particular, we propose the following constructions: Single-key weakly succinct secret-key functional encryption (SKFE) is constructed from SXIO (even with a bad compression factor) and one-way functions. Single-key weakly succinct public-key functional encryption (PKFE) is constructed from SXIO with a good compression factor and public-key encryption. Single-key weakly succinct PKFE is constructed from SXIO (even with a bad compression factor) and identity-based encryption. Our new framework has side benefits. Our constructions do not rely on any number theoretic or lattice assumptions such as decisional Diffie–Hellman and learning with errors assumptions. Moreover, all security reductions incur only polynomial security loss. Known constructions of weakly succinct SKFE or PKFE from SXIO with polynomial security loss rely on number theoretic or lattice assumptions. As corollaries of our results, relationships among SXIO, a few variants of SKFE, and a variant of randomized encoding are discovered.

2021

JOFC

Fine-Grained Cryptography Revisited
Abstract

Fine-grained cryptographic primitives are secure against adversaries with bounded resources and can be computed by honest users with less resources than the adversaries. In this paper, we revisit the results by Degwekar, Vaikuntanathan, and Vasudevan in Crypto 2016 on fine-grained cryptography and show constructions of three key fundamental fine-grained cryptographic primitives: one-way permutation families , hash proof systems (which in turn implies a public-key encryption scheme against chosen chiphertext attacks ), and trapdoor one-way functions . All of our constructions are computable in $$\textsf {NC}^1$$ NC 1 and secure against ( non-uniform ) $$\textsf {NC}^1$$ NC 1 circuits under the widely believed worst-case assumption $$\textsf {NC}^1\subsetneq {\oplus \textsf {L/poly}}$$ NC 1 ⊊ ⊕ L / poly .

2020

ASIACRYPT

Non-Committing Encryption with Constant Ciphertext Expansion from Standard Assumptions
📺
Abstract

Non-committing encryption (NCE) introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC '96) is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. Recently, Yoshida et al. (ASIACRYPT '19) proposed an NCE scheme based on the hardness of the DDH problem, which has ciphertext expansion $\mathcal{O}(\log\lambda)$ and public-key expansion $\mathcal{O}(\lambda^2)$.
In this work, we improve their result and propose a methodology to construct an NCE scheme that achieves \emph{constant} ciphertext expansion. Our methodology can be instantiated from the DDH assumption and the LWE assumption. When instantiated from the LWE assumption, the public-key expansion is $\lambda\cdot\mathsf{poly}(\log\lambda)$. They are the first NCE schemes satisfying constant ciphertext expansion without using iO or common reference strings.
Along the way, we define a weak notion of NCE, which satisfies only weak forms of correctness and security. We show how to amplify such a weak NCE scheme into a full-fledged one using wiretap codes with a new security property.

2019

CRYPTO

CCA Security and Trapdoor Functions via Key-Dependent-Message Security
📺
Abstract

We study the relationship among public-key encryption (PKE) satisfying indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks (IND-CPA security), that against chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA security), and trapdoor functions (TDF). Specifically, we aim at finding a unified approach and some additional requirement to realize IND-CCA secure PKE and TDF based on IND-CPA secure PKE, and show the following two main results.As the first main result, we show how to achieve IND-CCA security via a weak form of key-dependent-message (KDM) security. More specifically, we construct an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a secret-key encryption (SKE) scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions (projection-KDM security). Projection functions are very simple functions with respect to which KDM security has been widely studied. Since the existence of projection-KDM secure PKE implies that of the above two building blocks, as a corollary of this result, we see that the existence of IND-CCA secure PKE is implied by that of projection-KDM secure PKE.As the second main result, we extend the above construction of IND-CCA secure PKE into that of TDF by additionally requiring a mild requirement for each building block. Our TDF satisfies adaptive one-wayness. We can instantiate our TDF based on a wide variety of computational assumptions. Especially, we obtain the first TDF (with adaptive one-wayness) based on the sub-exponential hardness of the constant-noise learning-parity-with-noise (LPN) problem.

2019

CRYPTO

Adaptively Secure and Succinct Functional Encryption: Improving Security and Efficiency, Simultaneously
Abstract

Functional encryption (FE) is advanced encryption that enables us to issue functional decryption keys where functions are hardwired. When we decrypt a ciphertext of a message m by a functional decryption key where a function f is hardwired, we can obtain f(m) and nothing else. We say FE is selectively or adaptively secure when target messages are chosen at the beginning or after function queries are sent, respectively. In the weakly-selective setting, function queries are also chosen at the beginning. We say FE is single-key/collusion-resistant when it is secure against adversaries that are given only-one/polynomially-many functional decryption keys, respectively. We say FE is sublinearly-succinct/succinct when the running time of an encryption algorithm is sublinear/poly-logarithmic in the function description size, respectively.In this study, we propose a generic transformation from weakly-selectively secure, single-key, and sublinearly-succinct (we call “building block”) PKFE for circuits into adaptively secure, collusion-resistant, and succinct (we call “fully-equipped”) one for circuits. Our transformation relies on neither concrete assumptions such as learning with errors nor indistinguishability obfuscation (IO). This is the first generic construction of fully-equipped PKFE that does not rely on IO.As side-benefits of our results, we obtain the following primitives from the building block PKFE for circuits: (1) laconic oblivious transfer (2) succinct garbling scheme for Turing machines (3) selectively secure, collusion-resistant, and succinct PKFE for Turing machines (4) low-overhead adaptively secure traitor tracing (5) key-dependent message secure and leakage-resilient public-key encryption. We also obtain a generic transformation from simulation-based adaptively secure garbling schemes that satisfy a natural decomposability property into adaptively indistinguishable garbling schemes whose online complexity does not depend on the output length.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Simple and Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public Key Encryption
Abstract

We propose two efficient public key encryption (PKE) schemes satisfying key dependent message security against chosen ciphertext attacks (KDM-CCA security). The first one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to affine functions. The other one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to polynomial functions. Both of our schemes are based on the KDM-CPA secure PKE schemes proposed by Malkin, Teranishi, and Yung (EUROCRYPT 2011). Although our schemes satisfy KDM-CCA security, their efficiency overheads compared to Malkin et al.’s schemes are very small. Thus, efficiency of our schemes is drastically improved compared to the existing KDM-CCA secure schemes.We achieve our results by extending the construction technique by Kitagawa and Tanaka (ASIACRYPT 2018). Our schemes are obtained via semi-generic constructions using an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme as a building block. We prove the KDM-CCA security of our schemes based on the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption and the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme.Moreover, our security proofs are tight if the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme is tightly reduced to its underlying computational assumption. By instantiating our schemes using existing tightly IND-CCA secure PKE schemes, we obtain the first tightly KDM-CCA secure PKE schemes whose ciphertext consists only of a constant number of group elements.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Non-Committing Encryption with Quasi-Optimal Ciphertext-Rate Based on the DDH Problem
Abstract

Non-committing encryption (NCE) was introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC ’96). Informally, an encryption scheme is non-committing if it can generate a dummy ciphertext that is indistinguishable from a real one. The dummy ciphertext can be opened to any message later by producing a secret key and an encryption random coin which “explain” the ciphertext as an encryption of the message. Canetti et al. showed that NCE is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. An important measure of the efficiently of NCE is the ciphertext rate, that is the ciphertext length divided by the message length, and previous works studying NCE have focused on constructing NCE schemes with better ciphertext rates.We propose an NCE scheme satisfying the ciphertext rate based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem, where is the security parameter. The proposed construction achieves the best ciphertext rate among existing constructions proposed in the plain model, that is, the model without using common reference strings. Previously to our work, an NCE scheme with the best ciphertext rate based on the DDH problem was the one proposed by Choi et al. (ASIACRYPT ’09) that has ciphertext rate . Our construction of NCE is similar in spirit to that of the recent construction of the trapdoor function proposed by Garg and Hajiabadi (CRYPTO ’18).

2019

ASIACRYPT

Fine-Grained Cryptography Revisited
Abstract

Fine-grained cryptographic primitives are secure against adversaries with bounded resources and can be computed by honest users with less resources than the adversaries. In this paper, we revisit the results by Degwekar, Vaikuntanathan, and Vasudevan in Crypto 2016 on fine-grained cryptography and show the constructions of three key fundamental fine-grained cryptographic primitives: one-way permutations, hash proof systems (which in turn implies a public-key encryption scheme against chosen chiphertext attacks), and trapdoor one-way functions. All of our constructions are computable in $$\mathsf {NC^1}$$ and secure against (non-uniform) $$\mathsf {NC^1}$$ circuits under the widely believed worst-case assumption $$\mathsf {NC^1}\subsetneq \mathsf{\oplus L/poly}$$.

2018

PKC

Key Dependent Message Security and Receiver Selective Opening Security for Identity-Based Encryption
Abstract

We construct two identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes. The first one is IBE satisfying key dependent message (KDM) security for user secret keys. The second one is IBE satisfying simulation-based receiver selective opening (RSO) security. Both schemes are secure against adaptive-ID attacks and do not have any a-priori bound on the number of challenge identities queried by adversaries in the security games. They are the first constructions of IBE satisfying such levels of security.Our constructions of IBE are very simple. We construct KDM secure IBE by transforming KDM secure secret-key encryption using IBE satisfying only ordinary indistinguishability against adaptive-ID attacks (IND-ID-CPA security). Our simulation-based RSO secure IBE is based only on IND-ID-CPA secure IBE.We also demonstrate that our construction technique for KDM secure IBE is used to construct KDM secure public-key encryption. More precisely, we show how to construct KDM secure public-key encryption from KDM secure secret-key encryption and public-key encryption satisfying only ordinary indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks.

2018

PKC

Simple and Generic Constructions of Succinct Functional Encryption
Abstract

We propose simple and generic constructions of succinct functional encryption. Our key tool is exponentially-efficient indistinguishability obfuscator (XIO), which is the same as indistinguishability obfuscator (IO) except that the size of an obfuscated circuit (or the running-time of an obfuscator) is slightly smaller than that of a brute-force canonicalizer that outputs the entire truth table of a circuit to be obfuscated. A “compression factor” of XIO indicates how much XIO compresses the brute-force canonicalizer. In this study, we propose a significantly simple framework to construct succinct functional encryption via XIO and show that XIO is a powerful enough to achieve cutting-edge cryptography. In particular, we prove the followings:Single-key weakly succinct secret-key functional encryption (SKFE) is constructed from XIO (even with a bad compression factor) and one-way function.Single-key weakly succinct public-key functional encryption (PKFE) is constructed from XIO with a good compression factor and public-key encryption.Single-key weakly succinct PKFE is constructed from XIO (even with a bad compression factor) and identity-based encryption.
Our new framework has side benefits. Our constructions do not rely on any number theoretic or lattice assumptions such as decisional Diffie-Hellman and learning with errors assumptions. Moreover, all security reductions incur only polynomial security loss. Known constructions of weakly succinct SKFE or PKFE from XIO with polynomial security loss rely on number theoretic or lattice assumptions.

2018

ASIACRYPT

A Framework for Achieving KDM-CCA Secure Public-Key Encryption
Abstract

We propose a framework for achieving a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme that satisfies key dependent message security against chosen ciphertext attacks (KDM-CCA security) based on projective hash function. Our framework can be instantiated under the decisional diffie-hellman (DDH), quadratic residuosity (QR), and decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumptions. The constructed schemes are KDM-CCA secure with respect to affine functions and compatible with the amplification method shown by Applebaum (EUROCRYPT 2011). Thus, they lead to PKE schemes satisfying KDM-CCA security for all functions computable by a-priori bounded size circuits. They are the first PKE schemes satisfying such a security notion in the standard model using neither non-interactive zero knowledge proof nor bilinear pairing. The above framework based on projective hash function captures only KDM-CCA security in the single user setting. However, we can prove the KDM-CCA security in the multi user setting of our concrete instantiations by using their algebraic structures explicitly. Especially, we prove that our DDH based scheme satisfies KDM-CCA security in the multi user setting with the same parameter setting as in the single user setting.

2016

ASIACRYPT

2008

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2023
- Asiacrypt 2023
- Crypto 2019
- PKC 2010

#### Coauthors

- Shohei Egashira (2)
- Goichiro Hanaoka (4)
- Ryotaro Hayashi (3)
- Toshiyuki Isshiki (1)
- Akinori Kawachi (3)
- Fuyuki Kitagawa (13)
- Toshihide Matsuda (1)
- Takahiro Matsuda (7)
- Ryo Nishimaki (6)
- Akira Numayama (2)
- Tatsuaki Okamoto (2)
- Damien Stehlé (1)
- Ron Steinfeld (1)
- Shigenori Uchiyama (1)
- Yuyu Wang (5)
- Keita Xagawa (5)
- Takashi Yamakawa (1)
- Yusuke Yoshida (2)
- Zongyang Zhang (1)