## CryptoDB

### Takahiro Matsuda

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

JOFC

NIZK from SNARGs
Abstract

We give a construction of a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument for all $${\textsf{NP}}$$ NP languages based on a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for all $${\textsf{NP}}$$ NP languages and a one-way function. The succinctness requirement for the SNARG is rather mild: We only require that the proof size be $$|\pi |={\textsf{poly}}(\lambda )(|x|+|w|)^\delta $$ | π | = poly ( λ ) ( | x | + | w | ) δ for some constant $$\delta <1$$ δ < 1 , where | x | is the statement length, | w | is the witness length, and $$\lambda $$ λ is the security parameter. Especially, we do not require the efficiency of the verification to be sublinear in | x | or | w |. As a corollary, we give a generic conversion from a SNARK to a zero-knowledge SNARG assuming the existence of one-way functions where SNARK is a SNARG with knowledge-extractability. For this conversion, we require the SNARK to be fully succinct, i.e., the proof size is $${\textsf{poly}}(\lambda )(|x|+|w|)^{o(1)}$$ poly ( λ ) ( | x | + | w | ) o ( 1 ) . Before this work, such a conversion was only known if we additionally assume the existence of a NIZK. Along the way of obtaining our result, we give a generic compiler to upgrade a NIZK for all $${\textsf{NP}}$$ NP languages with non-adaptive zero-knowledge to one with adaptive zero-knowledge. Though this can be shown by carefully combining known results, to the best of our knowledge, no explicit proof of this generic conversion has been presented.

2022

JOFC

CCA Security and Trapdoor Functions via Key-Dependent-Message Security
Abstract

We study the relationship among public-key encryption (PKE) satisfying indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks (IND-CPA security), that against chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA security), and trapdoor functions (TDF). Specifically, we aim at finding a unified approach and some additional requirement to realize IND-CCA secure PKE and TDF based on IND-CPA secure PKE, and show the following two main results. As the first main result, we show how to achieve IND-CCA security via a weak form of key-dependent-message (KDM) security. More specifically, we construct an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a secret-key encryption (SKE) scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions (projection-KDM security). Projection functions are elementary functions with respect to which KDM security has been widely studied. Since the existence of projection-KDM secure PKE implies that of the above two building blocks, as a corollary of this result, we see that the existence of IND-CCA secure PKE is implied by that of projection-KDM secure PKE. As the second main result, we extend the above construction of IND-CCA secure PKE into that of TDF by additionally requiring a mild requirement for each building block. Our TDF satisfies adaptive one-wayness. We can instantiate our TDF based on a wide variety of computational assumptions. Especially, we obtain the first TDF (with adaptive one-wayness) based on the sub-exponential hardness of the constant-noise learning-parity-with-noise (LPN) problem. In addition, we show that by extending the above constructions, we can obtain PKE schemes satisfying advanced security notions under CCA, that is, optimal rate leakage-resilience under CCA and selective-opening security under CCA. As a result, we obtain the first PKE schemes satisfying these security notions based on the computational Diffie–Hellman (CDH) assumption or the low-noise LPN assumption.

2021

PKC

Impossibility on Tamper-Resilient Cryptography with Uniqueness Properties
📺
Abstract

In this work, we show negative results on the tamper-resilience of a wide class of cryptographic primitives with uniqueness properties, such as unique signatures, verifiable random functions, signatures with unique keys, injective one-way functions, and encryption schemes with a property we call unique-message property. Concretely, we prove that for these primitives, it is impossible to derive their (even extremely weak) tamper-resilience from any common assumption, via black-box reductions. Our proofs exploit the simulatable attack paradigm proposed by Wichs (ITCS ’13), and the tampering model we treat is the plain model, where there is no trusted setup.

2020

TCC

NIZK from SNARG
📺
Abstract

We give a construction of a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument for all NP languages based on a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for all NP languages and a one-way function. The succinctness requirement for the SNARG is rather mild: We only require that the proof size be $|\pi|=\mathsf{poly}(\lambda)(|x|+|w|)^c$ for some constant $c<1/2$, where $|x|$ is the statement length, $|w|$ is the witness length, and $\lambda$ is the security parameter. Especially, we do not require anything about the efficiency of the verification.
Based on this result, we also give a generic conversion from a SNARG to a zero-knowledge SNARG assuming the existence of CPA secure public-key encryption. For this conversion, we require a SNARG to have efficient verification, i.e., the computational complexity of the verification algorithm is $\mathsf{poly}(\lambda)(|x|+|w|)^{o(1)}$. Before this work, such a conversion was only known if we additionally assume the existence of a NIZK.
Along the way of obtaining our result, we give a generic compiler to upgrade a NIZK for all NP languages with non-adaptive zero-knowledge to one with adaptive zero-knowledge. Though this can be shown by carefully combining known results, to the best of our knowledge, no explicit proof of this generic conversion has been presented.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Circular Security Is Complete for KDM Security
📺
Abstract

Circular security is the most elementary form of key-dependent message (KDM) security, which allows us to securely encrypt only a copy of secret key bits. In this work, we show that circular security is complete for KDM security in the sense that an encryption scheme satisfying this security notion can be transformed into one satisfying KDM security with respect to all functions computable by a-priori bounded-size circuits (bounded-KDM security). This result holds in the presence of any number of keys and in any of secret-key/public-key and CPA/CCA settings. Such a completeness result was previously shown by Applebaum (EUROCRYPT 2011) for KDM security with respect to projection functions (projection-KDM security) that allows us to securely encrypt both a copy and a negation of secret key bits.
Besides amplifying the strength of KDM security, our transformation in fact can start from an encryption scheme satisfying circular security against CPA attacks and results in one satisfying bounded-KDM security against CCA attacks. This result improves the recent result by Kitagawa and Matsuda (TCC 2019) showing a CPA-to-CCA transformation for KDM secure public-key encryption schemes.

2019

PKC

Improved Security Evaluation Techniques for Imperfect Randomness from Arbitrary Distributions
Abstract

Dodis and Yu (TCC 2013) studied how the security of cryptographic primitives that are secure in the “ideal” model in which the distribution of a randomness is the uniform distribution, is degraded when the ideal distribution of a randomness is switched to a “real-world” (possibly biased) distribution that has some lowerbound on its min-entropy or collision-entropy. However, in many constructions, their security is guaranteed only when a randomness is sampled from some non-uniform distribution (such as Gaussian in lattice-based cryptography), in which case we cannot directly apply the results by Dodis and Yu.In this paper, we generalize the results by Dodis and Yu using the Rényi divergence, and show how the security of a cryptographic primitive whose security is guaranteed when the ideal distribution of a randomness is a general (possibly non-uniform) distribution Q, is degraded when the distribution is switched to another (real-world) distribution R. More specifically, we derive two general inequalities regarding the Rényi divergence of R from Q and an adversary’s advantage against the security of a cryptographic primitive. As applications of our results, we show (1) an improved reduction for switching the distributions of distinguishing problems with public samplability, which is simpler and much tighter than the reduction by Bai et al. (ASIACRYPT 2015), and (2) how the differential privacy of a mechanism is degraded when its randomness comes from not an ideal distribution Q but a real-world distribution R. Finally, we show methods for approximate-sampling from an arbitrary distribution Q with some guaranteed upperbound on the Rényi divergence (of the distribution R of our sampling methods from Q).

2019

PKC

Adaptively Single-Key Secure Constrained PRFs for $\mathrm {NC}^1$
Abstract

We present a construction of an adaptively single-key secure constrained PRF (CPRF) for $$\mathbf {NC}^1$$ assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (IO) and the subgroup hiding assumption over a (pairing-free) composite order group. This is the first construction of such a CPRF in the standard model without relying on a complexity leveraging argument.To achieve this, we first introduce the notion of partitionable CPRF, which is a CPRF accommodated with partitioning techniques and combine it with shadow copy techniques often used in the dual system encryption methodology. We present a construction of partitionable CPRF for $$\mathbf {NC}^1$$ based on IO and the subgroup hiding assumption over a (pairing-free) group. We finally prove that an adaptively single-key secure CPRF for $$\mathbf {NC}^1$$ can be obtained from a partitionable CPRF for $$\mathbf {NC}^1$$ and IO.

2019

PKC

Lattice-Based Revocable (Hierarchical) IBE with Decryption Key Exposure Resistance
Abstract

Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) is an extension of IBE that supports a key revocation mechanism, which is an indispensable feature for practical cryptographic schemes. Due to this extra feature, RIBE is often required to satisfy a strong security notion unique to the revocation setting called decryption key exposure resistance (DKER). Additionally, hierarchal IBE (HIBE) is another orthogonal extension of IBE that supports key delegation functionalities allowing for scalable deployments of cryptographic schemes. So far, R(H)IBE constructions with DKER are only known from bilinear maps, where all constructions rely heavily on the so-called key re-randomization property to achieve the DKER and/or hierarchal feature. Since lattice-based schemes seem to be inherently ill-fit with the key re-randomization property, no construction of lattice-based R(H)IBE schemes with DKER are known.In this paper, we propose the first lattice-based RHIBE scheme with DKER without relying on the key re-randomization property, departing from all the previously known methods. We start our work by providing a generic construction of RIBE schemes with DKER, which uses as building blocks any two-level standard HIBE scheme and (weak) RIBE scheme without DKER. Based on previous lattice-based RIBE constructions without DKER, our result implies the first lattice-based RIBE scheme with DKER. Then, building on top of our generic construction, we construct the first lattice-based RHIBE scheme with DKER, by further exploiting the algebraic structure of lattices. To this end, we prepare a new tool called the level conversion keys, which enables us to achieve the hierarchal feature without relying on the key re-randomization property.

2019

CRYPTO

CCA Security and Trapdoor Functions via Key-Dependent-Message Security
📺
Abstract

We study the relationship among public-key encryption (PKE) satisfying indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks (IND-CPA security), that against chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA security), and trapdoor functions (TDF). Specifically, we aim at finding a unified approach and some additional requirement to realize IND-CCA secure PKE and TDF based on IND-CPA secure PKE, and show the following two main results.As the first main result, we show how to achieve IND-CCA security via a weak form of key-dependent-message (KDM) security. More specifically, we construct an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a secret-key encryption (SKE) scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions (projection-KDM security). Projection functions are very simple functions with respect to which KDM security has been widely studied. Since the existence of projection-KDM secure PKE implies that of the above two building blocks, as a corollary of this result, we see that the existence of IND-CCA secure PKE is implied by that of projection-KDM secure PKE.As the second main result, we extend the above construction of IND-CCA secure PKE into that of TDF by additionally requiring a mild requirement for each building block. Our TDF satisfies adaptive one-wayness. We can instantiate our TDF based on a wide variety of computational assumptions. Especially, we obtain the first TDF (with adaptive one-wayness) based on the sub-exponential hardness of the constant-noise learning-parity-with-noise (LPN) problem.

2019

TCC

CPA-to-CCA Transformation for KDM Security
Abstract

We show that chosen plaintext attacks (CPA) security is equivalent to chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA) security for key-dependent message (KDM) security. Concretely, we show how to construct a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme that is KDM-CCA secure with respect to all functions computable by circuits of a-priori bounded size, based only on a PKE scheme that is KDM-CPA secure with respect to projection functions. Our construction works for KDM security in the single user setting.Our main result is achieved by combining the following two steps. First, we observe that by combining the results and techniques from the recent works by Lombardi et al. (CRYPTO 2019), and by Kitagawa et al. (CRYPTO 2019), we can construct a reusable designated-verifier non-interactive zero-knowledge (DV-NIZK) argument system based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a secret-key encryption (SKE) scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions. This observation leads to the first reusable DV-NIZK argument system under the learning-parity-with-noise (LPN) assumption. Then, as the second and main technical step, we show a generic construction of a KDM-CCA secure PKE scheme using an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme, a reusable DV-NIZK argument system, and an SKE scheme satisfying one-time KDM security with respect to projection functions. Since the classical Naor-Yung paradigm (STOC 1990) with a DV-NIZK argument system does not work for proving KDM security, we propose a new construction methodology to achieve this generic construction.Moreover, we show how to extend our generic construction and achieve KDM-CCA security in the multi-user setting, by additionally requiring the underlying SKE scheme in our generic construction to satisfy a weak form of KDM security against related-key attacks (RKA-KDM security) instead of one-time KDM security. From this extension, we obtain the first KDM-CCA secure PKE schemes in the multi-user setting under the CDH or LPN assumption.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Simple and Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public Key Encryption
Abstract

We propose two efficient public key encryption (PKE) schemes satisfying key dependent message security against chosen ciphertext attacks (KDM-CCA security). The first one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to affine functions. The other one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to polynomial functions. Both of our schemes are based on the KDM-CPA secure PKE schemes proposed by Malkin, Teranishi, and Yung (EUROCRYPT 2011). Although our schemes satisfy KDM-CCA security, their efficiency overheads compared to Malkin et al.’s schemes are very small. Thus, efficiency of our schemes is drastically improved compared to the existing KDM-CCA secure schemes.We achieve our results by extending the construction technique by Kitagawa and Tanaka (ASIACRYPT 2018). Our schemes are obtained via semi-generic constructions using an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme as a building block. We prove the KDM-CCA security of our schemes based on the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption and the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme.Moreover, our security proofs are tight if the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme is tightly reduced to its underlying computational assumption. By instantiating our schemes using existing tightly IND-CCA secure PKE schemes, we obtain the first tightly KDM-CCA secure PKE schemes whose ciphertext consists only of a constant number of group elements.

2018

CRYPTO

Constrained PRFs for $\mathrm{NC}^1$ in Traditional Groups
📺
Abstract

We propose new constrained pseudorandom functions (CPRFs) in traditional groups. Traditional groups mean cyclic and multiplicative groups of prime order that were widely used in the 1980s and 1990s (sometimes called “pairing free” groups). Our main constructions are as follows.
We propose a selectively single-key secure CPRF for circuits with depth$$O(\log n)$$(that is,NC$$^1$$circuits) in traditional groups where n is the input size. It is secure under the L-decisional Diffie-Hellman inversion (L-DDHI) assumption in the group of quadratic residues $$\mathbb {QR}_q$$ and the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption in a traditional group of order qin the standard model.We propose a selectively single-key private bit-fixing CPRF in traditional groups. It is secure under the DDH assumption in any prime-order cyclic group in the standard model.We propose adaptively single-key secure CPRF for NC$$^1$$ and private bit-fixing CPRF in the random oracle model.
To achieve the security in the standard model, we develop a new technique using correlated-input secure hash functions.

2018

PKC

Related Randomness Security for Public Key Encryption, Revisited
Abstract

Motivated by the history of randomness failures in practical systems, Paterson, Schuldt, and Sibborn (PKC 2014) introduced the notion of related randomness security for public key encryption. In this paper, we firstly show an inherent limitation of this notion: if the family of related randomness functions is sufficiently rich to express the encryption function of the considered scheme, then security cannot be achieved. This suggests that achieving security for function families capable of expressing more complex operations, such as those used in random number generation, might be difficult. The current constructions of related randomness secure encryption in the standard model furthermore reflect this; full security is only achieved for function families with a convenient algebraic structure. We additionally revisit the seemingly optimal random oracle model construction by Paterson et al. and highlight its limitations.To overcome this difficulty, we propose a new notion which we denote related refreshable randomness security. This notion captures a scenario in which an adversary has limited time to attack a system before new entropy is added. More specifically, the number of encryption queries with related randomness the adversary can make before the randomness is refreshed, is bounded, but the adversary is allowed to make an unbounded total number of queries. Furthermore, the adversary is allowed to influence how entropy is added to the system. In this setting, we construct an encryption scheme which remains secure in the standard model for arbitrary function families of size $$2^p$$2p (where p is polynomial in the security parameter) that satisfy certain collision-resistant and output-unpredictability properties. This captures a rich class of functions, which includes, as a special case, circuits of polynomial size. Our scheme makes use of a new construction of a (bounded) related-key attack secure pseudorandom function, which in turn is based on a new flavor of the leftover hash lemma. These technical results might be of independent interest.

2016

ASIACRYPT

2015

ASIACRYPT

2012

CRYPTO

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Asiacrypt 2023
- PKC 2021
- Asiacrypt 2021
- Asiacrypt 2020
- PKC 2019
- Asiacrypt 2019
- PKC 2017
- Asiacrypt 2017
- Asiacrypt 2016

#### Coauthors

- Nuttapong Attrapadung (2)
- Keita Emura (1)
- Goichiro Hanaoka (14)
- Shuichi Katsumata (1)
- Fuyuki Kitagawa (8)
- Kanta Matsuura (3)
- Takao Murakami (1)
- Ryo Nishimaki (2)
- Go Ohtake (1)
- Jacob C. N. Schuldt (2)
- Kenta Takahashi (1)
- Atsushi Takayasu (1)
- Keisuke Tanaka (7)
- Yuyu Wang (3)
- Shota Yamada (3)
- Takashi Yamakawa (4)
- Zongyang Zhang (1)