## CryptoDB

### Yusuke Yoshida

#### Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
ASIACRYPT
Non-committing encryption (NCE) introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC '96) is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. Recently, Yoshida et al. (ASIACRYPT '19) proposed an NCE scheme based on the hardness of the DDH problem, which has ciphertext expansion $\mathcal{O}(\log\lambda)$ and public-key expansion $\mathcal{O}(\lambda^2)$. In this work, we improve their result and propose a methodology to construct an NCE scheme that achieves \emph{constant} ciphertext expansion. Our methodology can be instantiated from the DDH assumption and the LWE assumption. When instantiated from the LWE assumption, the public-key expansion is $\lambda\cdot\mathsf{poly}(\log\lambda)$. They are the first NCE schemes satisfying constant ciphertext expansion without using iO or common reference strings. Along the way, we define a weak notion of NCE, which satisfies only weak forms of correctness and security. We show how to amplify such a weak NCE scheme into a full-fledged one using wiretap codes with a new security property.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Non-committing encryption (NCE) was introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC ’96). Informally, an encryption scheme is non-committing if it can generate a dummy ciphertext that is indistinguishable from a real one. The dummy ciphertext can be opened to any message later by producing a secret key and an encryption random coin which “explain” the ciphertext as an encryption of the message. Canetti et al. showed that NCE is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. An important measure of the efficiently of NCE is the ciphertext rate, that is the ciphertext length divided by the message length, and previous works studying NCE have focused on constructing NCE schemes with better ciphertext rates.We propose an NCE scheme satisfying the ciphertext rate based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem, where is the security parameter. The proposed construction achieves the best ciphertext rate among existing constructions proposed in the plain model, that is, the model without using common reference strings. Previously to our work, an NCE scheme with the best ciphertext rate based on the DDH problem was the one proposed by Choi et al. (ASIACRYPT ’09) that has ciphertext rate . Our construction of NCE is similar in spirit to that of the recent construction of the trapdoor function proposed by Garg and Hajiabadi (CRYPTO ’18).

#### Coauthors

Fuyuki Kitagawa (2)
Keisuke Tanaka (2)
Keita Xagawa (1)