International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Philippe Gaborit


Single trace HQC shared key recovery with SASCA
This paper presents practicable single trace attacks against the Hamming Quasi-Cyclic (HQC) Key Encapsulation Mechanism. These attacks are the first Soft Analytical Side-Channel Attacks (SASCA) against code-based cryptography. We mount SASCA based on Belief Propagation (BP) on several steps of HQC’s decapsulation process. Firstly, we target the Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder involved in the HQC publicly known code. We perform simulated attacks under Hamming weight leakage model, and reach excellent accuracies (superior to 0.9) up to a high noise level (σ = 3), thanks to a re-decoding strategy. In a real case attack scenario, on a STM32F407, this attack leads to a perfect success rate. Secondly, we conduct an analogous attack against the RS encoder used during the re-encryption step required by the Fujisaki-Okamoto-like transform. Both in simulation and practical instances, results are satisfactory and this attack represents a threat to the security of HQC. Finally, we analyze the strength of countermeasures based on masking and shuffling strategies. In line with previous SASCA literature targeting Kyber, we show that masking HQC is a limited countermeasure against BP attacks, as well as shuffling countermeasures adapted from Kyber. We evaluate the “full shuffling” strategy which thwarts our attack by introducing sufficient combinatorial complexity. Eventually, we highlight the difficulty of protecting the current RS encoder with a shuffling strategy. A possible countermeasure would be to consider another encoding algorithm for the scheme to support a full shuffling. Since the encoding subroutine is only a small part of the implementation, it would come at a small cost.
Analysis of the security of the PSSI problem and cryptanalysis of the Durandal signature scheme
Nicolas Aragon Victor Dyseryn Philippe Gaborit
We present a new attack against the PSSI problem, one of the three problems at the root of security of Durandal, an efficient rank metric code-based signature scheme with a public key size of 15 kB and a signature size of 4 kB, presented at EUROCRYPT'19. Our attack recovers the private key using a leakage of information coming from several signatures produced with the same key. Our approach is to combine pairs of signatures and perform Cramer-like formulas in order to build subspaces containing a secret element. We break all existing parameters of Durandal: the two published sets of parameters claiming a security of 128 bits are broken in respectively $2^{66}$ and $2^{73}$ elementary bit operations, and the number of signatures required to finalize the attack is 1,792 and 4,096 respectively. We implemented our attack and ran experiments that demonstrated its success with smaller parameters.
An Algebraic Attack on Rank Metric Code-Based Cryptosystems 📺
The Rank metric decoding problem is the main problem considered in cryptography based on codes in the rank metric. Very efficient schemes based on this problem or quasi-cyclic versions of it have been proposed recently, such as those in the submissions ROLLO and RQC currently at the second round of the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Process. While combinatorial attacks on this problem have been extensively studied and seem now well understood, the situation is not as satisfactory for algebraic attacks, for which previous work essentially suggested that they were ineffective for cryptographic parameters. In this paper, starting from Ourivski and Johansson's algebraic modelling of the problem into a system of polynomial equations, we show how to augment this system with easily computed equations so that the augmented system is solved much faster via Gröbner bases. This happens because the augmented system has solving degree $r$, $r+1$ or $r+2$ depending on the parameters, where $r$ is the rank weight, which we show by extending results from Verbel \emph{et al.} (PQCrypto 2019) on systems arising from the MinRank problem; with target rank $r$, Verbel \emph{et al.} lower the solving degree to $r+2$, and even less for some favorable instances that they call ``superdetermined''. We give complexity bounds for this approach as well as practical timings of an implementation using \texttt{magma}. This improves upon the previously known complexity estimates for both Gröbner basis and (non-quantum) combinatorial approaches, and for example leads to an attack in 200 bits on ROLLO-I-256 whose claimed security was 256 bits.
Improvements of Algebraic Attacks for solving the Rank Decoding and MinRank problems 📺
In this paper, we show how to significantly improve algebraic techniques for solving the MinRank problem, which is ubiquitous in multivariate and rank metric code based cryptography. In the case of the structured MinRank instances arising in the latter, we build upon a recent breakthrough in Bardet et al. (EUROCRYPT 2020) showing that algebraic attacks outperform the combinatorial ones that were considered state of the art up until now. Through a slight modification of this approach, we completely avoid Gr\¨obner bases computations for certain parameters and are left only with solving linear systems. This does not only substantially improve the complexity, but also gives a convincing argument as to why algebraic techniques work in this case. When used against the second round NIST-PQC candidates ROLLO-I-128/192/256, our new attack has bit complexity respectively 71, 87, and 151, to be compared to 117, 144, and 197 as obtained in Bardet et al. (EUROCRYPT 2020). The linear systems arise from the nullity of the maximal minors of a certain matrix associated to the algebraic modeling. We also use a similar approach to improve the algebraic MinRank solvers for the usual MinRank problem. When applied against the second round NIST-PQC candidates GeMSS and Rainbow, our attack has a complexity that is very close to or even slightly better than those of the best known attacks so far. Note that these latter attacks did not rely on MinRank techniques since the MinRank approach used to give complexities that were far away from classical security levels.
Durandal: A Rank Metric Based Signature Scheme 📺
We describe a variation of the Schnorr-Lyubashevsky approach to devising signature schemes that is adapted to rank based cryptography. This new approach enables us to obtain a randomization of the signature, which previously seemed difficult to derive for code-based cryptography. We provide a detailed analysis of attacks and an EUF-CMA proof for our scheme. Our scheme relies on the security of the Ideal Rank Support Learning and the Ideal Rank Syndrome problems and a newly introduced problem: Product Spaces Subspaces Indistinguishability, for which we give a detailed analysis. Overall the parameters we propose are efficient and comparable in terms of signature size to the Dilithium lattice-based scheme, with a signature size of 4 kB for a public key of size less than 20 kB.