## CryptoDB

### Christian Majenz

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

EUROCRYPT

Online-Extractability in the Quantum Random-Oracle Model
📺
Abstract

We show the following generic result: Whenever a quantum query algorithm in the quantum random-oracle model outputs a classical value t that is promised to be in some tight relation with H(x) for some x, then x can be efficiently extracted with almost certainty. The extraction is by means of a suitable simulation of the random oracle and works online, meaning that it is straightline, i.e., without rewinding, and on- the-fly, i.e., during the protocol execution and without disturbing it.
The technical core of our result is a new commutator bound that bounds the operator norm of the commutator of the unitary operator that describes the evolution of the compressed oracle (which is used to simulate the random oracle above) and of the measurement that extracts x.
We show two applications of our generic online extractability result. We show tight online extractability of commit-and-open Σ-protocols in the quantum setting, and we offer the first complete post-quantum security proof of the textbook Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, i.e, without adjustments to facilitate the proof, including concrete security bounds.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Post-Quantum Security of the Even-Mansour Cipher
📺
Abstract

The Even-Mansour cipher is a simple method for constructing a (keyed) pseudorandom permutation $E$ from a public random permutation~$P:\bool^n \rightarrow \bool^n$. It is a core ingredient in a wide array of symmetric-key constructions, including several lightweight cryptosystems presently under consideration for standardization by NIST. It is secure against classical attacks, with optimal attacks requiring $q_E$ queries to $E$ and $q_P$ queries to $P$ such that $q_P \cdot q_E \approx 2^n$. If the attacker is given \emph{quantum} access to both $E$ and $P$, however, the cipher is completely insecure, with attacks using $q_P = q_E = O(n)$ queries known.
In any plausible real-world setting, however, a quantum attacker would have only \emph{classical} access to the keyed permutation $E$ implemented by honest parties, while retaining quantum access to $P$. Attacks in this setting with $q_P^2 \cdot q_E \approx 2^n$ are known, showing that security degrades as compared to the purely classical case, but leaving open the question as to whether the Even-Mansour cipher can still be proven secure in this natural ``post-quantum'' setting.
We resolve this open question, showing that any attack in this post-quantum setting requires $q^2_P \cdot q_E + q_P \cdot q_E^2 \approx 2^n$. Our results apply to both the two-key and single-key variants of Even-Mansour. Along the way, we establish several generalizations of results from prior work on quantum-query lower bounds that may be of independent interest.

2022

CRYPTO

Efficient NIZKs and Signatures from Commit-and-Open Protocols in the QROM
📺
Abstract

Commit-and-open sigma-protocols are a popular class of protocols for constructing non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments and digital-signature schemes via the Fiat-Shamir transformation. Instantiated with hash-based commitments, the resulting non-interactive schemes enjoy tight online-extractability in the random oracle model. Online extractability improves the tightness of security proofs for the resulting digital-signature schemes by avoiding lossy rewinding or forking-lemma based extraction.
In this work, we prove tight online extractability in the quantum random oracle model (QROM), showing that the construction supports post-quantum security. First, we consider the default case where committing is done by element-wise hashing. In a second part, we extend our result to Merkle-tree based commitments. Our results yield a significant improvement of the provable post-quantum security of the digital-signature scheme Picnic.
Our analysis makes use of a recent framework by Chung et al. [CFHL21] for analysing quantum algorithms in the QROM using purely classical reasoning. Therefore, our results can to a large extent be understood and verified without prior knowledge of quantum information science.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Failing gracefully: Decryption failures and the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform
Abstract

In known security reductions for the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, decryption failures are handled via a reduction solving the rather unnatural task of finding failing plaintexts given the private key, resulting in a Grover search bound. Moreover, they require an implicit rejection mechanism for invalid ciphertexts to achieve a reasonable security bound in the QROM. We present a reduction that has neither of these deficiencies:
We introduce two security games related to finding decryption failures, one capturing the computationally hard task of using the public key to find a decryption failure, and one capturing the statistically hard task of searching the random oracle for key-independent failures like, e.g., large randomness.
As a result, our security bounds in the QROM are tighter than previous ones with respect to the generic random oracle search attacks: The attacker can only partially compute the search predicate, namely for said key-independent failures. In addition, our entire reduction works for the explicit-reject variant of the transformation and improves significantly over all of its known reductions. Besides being the more natural variant of the transformation, security of the explicit reject mechanism is also relevant for side channel attack resilience of the implicit-rejection variant.
Along the way, we prove several technical results characterizing preimage extraction and certain search tasks in the QROM that might be of independent interest.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Tight adaptive reprogramming in the QROM
📺
Abstract

The random oracle model (ROM) enjoys widespread popularity, mostly because it tends to allow for tight and conceptually simple proofs where provable security in the standard model is elusive or costly. While being the adequate replacement of the ROM in the post-quantum security setting, the quantum-accessible random oracle model (QROM) has thus far failed to provide these advantages in many settings. In this work, we focus on adaptive reprogrammability, a feature of the ROM enabling tight and simple proofs in many settings. We show that the straightforward quantum-accessible generalization of adaptive reprogramming is feasible by proving a bound on the adversarial advantage in distinguishing whether a random oracle has been reprogrammed or not. We show that our bound is tight by providing a matching attack. We go on to demonstrate that our technique recovers the mentioned advantages of the ROM in three QROM applications: 1) We give a tighter proof of security of the message compression routine as used by XMSS.
2) We show that the standard ROM proof of chosen-message security for Fiat-Shamir signatures can be lifted to the QROM, straightforwardly, achieving a tighter reduction than previously known.
3) We give the first QROM proof of security against fault injection and nonce attacks for the hedged Fiat-Shamir transform.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Secure Multi-party Quantum Computation with a Dishonest Majority
📺
Abstract

The cryptographic task of secure multi-party (classical) computation has received a lot of attention in the last decades. Even in the extreme case where a computation is performed between k mutually distrustful players, and security is required even for the single honest player if all other players are colluding adversaries, secure protocols are known. For quantum computation, on the other hand, protocols allowing arbitrary dishonest majority have only been proven for k=2. In this work, we generalize the approach taken by Dupuis, Nielsen and Salvail (CRYPTO 2012) in the two-party setting to devise a secure, efficient protocol for multi-party quantum computation for any number of players k, and prove security against up to k-1 colluding adversaries. The quantum round complexity of the protocol for computing a quantum circuit of {CNOT, T} depth d is O(k (d + log n)), where n is the security parameter. To achieve efficiency, we develop a novel public verification protocol for the Clifford authentication code, and a testing protocol for magic-state inputs, both using classical multi-party computation.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Efficient simulation of random states and random unitaries
📺
Abstract

We consider the problem of efficiently simulating random quantum states and random unitary operators, in a manner which is convincing to unbounded adversaries with black-box oracle access.
This problem has previously only been considered for restricted adversaries. Against adversaries with an a priori bound on the number of queries, it is well-known that t-designs suffice. Against polynomial-time adversaries, one can use pseudorandom states (PRS) and pseudorandom unitaries (PRU), as defined in a recent work of Ji, Liu, and Song; unfortunately, no provably secure construction is known for PRUs.
In our setting, we are concerned with unbounded adversaries. Nonetheless, we are able to give stateful quantum algorithms which simulate the ideal object in both settings of interest. In the case of Haar-random states, our simulator is polynomial-time, has negligible error, and can also simulate verification and reflection through the simulated state. This yields an immediate application to quantum money: a money scheme which is information-theoretically unforgeable and untraceable. In the case of Haar-random unitaries, our simulator takes polynomial space, but simulates both forward and inverse access with zero error.
These results can be seen as the first significant steps in developing a theory of lazy sampling for random quantum objects.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Quantum-access-secure message authentication via blind-unforgeability
📺
Abstract

Formulating and designing authentication of classical messages in the presence of adversaries with quantum query access has been a challenge, as the familiar classical notions of unforgeability do not directly translate into meaningful notions in the quantum setting. A particular difficulty is how to fairly capture the notion of ``predicting an unqueried value'' when the adversary can query in quantum superposition.
We propose a natural definition of unforgeability against quantum adversaries called blind unforgeability. This notion defines a function to be predictable if there exists an adversary who can use "partially blinded" oracle access to predict values in the blinded region. We support the proposal with a number of technical results. We begin by establishing that the notion coincides with EUF-CMA in the classical setting and go on to demonstrate that the notion is satisfied by a number of simple guiding examples, such as random functions and quantum-query-secure pseudorandom functions. We then show the suitability of blind unforgeability for supporting canonical constructions and reductions. We prove that the "hash-and-MAC" paradigm and the Lamport one-time digital signature scheme are indeed unforgeable according to the definition. In this setting, we additionally define and study a new variety of quantum-secure hash functions called Bernoulli-preserving.
Finally, we demonstrate that blind unforgeability is strictly stronger than a previous definition of Boneh and Zhandry [EUROCRYPT '13, CRYPTO '13] and resolve an open problem concerning this previous definition by constructing an explicit function family which is forgeable yet satisfies the definition.

2020

CRYPTO

The Measure-and-Reprogram Technique 2.0: Multi-Round Fiat-Shamir and More
📺
Abstract

We revisit recent works by Don, Fehr, Majenz and Schaffner and by Liu and Zhandry on the security of the Fiat-Shamir transformation of sigma-protocols in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). Two natural questions that arise in this context are: (1) whether the results extend to the Fiat-Shamir transformation of {\em multi-round} interactive proofs, and (2) whether Don et al.'s O(q^2) loss in security is optimal.
Firstly, we answer question (1) in the affirmative. As a byproduct of solving a technical difficulty in proving this result, we slightly improve the result of Don et al., equipping it with a cleaner bound and an even simpler proof. We apply our result to digital signature schemes showing that it can be used to prove strong security for schemes like MQDSS in the QROM. As another application we prove QROM-security of a non-interactive OR proof by Liu, Wei and Wong.
As for question (2), we show via a Grover-search based attack that Don et al.'s quadratic security loss for the Fiat-Shamir transformation of sigma-protocols is optimal up to a small constant factor. This extends to our new multi-round result, proving it tight up to a factor that depends on the number of rounds only, i.e. is constant for any constant-round interactive proof.

2019

CRYPTO

Security of the Fiat-Shamir Transformation in the Quantum Random-Oracle Model
📺
Abstract

The famous Fiat-Shamir transformation turns any public-coin three-round interactive proof, i.e., any so-called
$$\Sigma {\text {-protocol}}$$
, into a non-interactive proof in the random-oracle model. We study this transformation in the setting of a quantum adversary that in particular may query the random oracle in quantum superposition.Our main result is a generic reduction that transforms any quantum dishonest prover attacking the Fiat-Shamir transformation in the quantum random-oracle model into a similarly successful quantum dishonest prover attacking the underlying
$$\Sigma {\text {-protocol}}$$
(in the standard model). Applied to the standard soundness and proof-of-knowledge definitions, our reduction implies that both these security properties, in both the computational and the statistical variant, are preserved under the Fiat-Shamir transformation even when allowing quantum attacks. Our result improves and completes the partial results that have been known so far, but it also proves wrong certain claims made in the literature.In the context of post-quantum secure signature schemes, our results imply that for any
$$\Sigma {\text {-protocol}}$$
that is a proof-of-knowledge against quantum dishonest provers (and that satisfies some additional natural properties), the corresponding Fiat-Shamir signature scheme is secure in the quantum random-oracle model. For example, we can conclude that the non-optimized version of Fish, which is the bare Fiat-Shamir variant of the NIST candidate Picnic, is secure in the quantum random-oracle model.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2021

#### Coauthors

- Gorjan Alagic (5)
- Chen Bai (1)
- Jelle Don (4)
- Yfke Dulek (1)
- Serge Fehr (4)
- Tommaso Gagliardoni (1)
- Alex B. Grilo (2)
- Kathrin Hövelmanns (2)
- Andreas Hülsing (2)
- Stacey Jeffery (1)
- Jonathan Katz (1)
- Alexander Russell (2)
- Christian Schaffner (4)
- Fang Song (1)