Bypassing Isolated Execution on RISC-V using Side-Channel-Assisted Fault-Injection and Its Countermeasure
RISC-V is equipped with physical memory protection (PMP) to prevent malicious software from accessing protected memory regions. PMP provides a trusted execution environment (TEE) that isolates secure and insecure applications. In this study, we propose a side-channel-assisted fault-injection attack to bypass isolation based on PMP. The proposed attack scheme involves extracting successful glitch parameters for fault injection from side-channel information under crossdevice conditions. A proof-of-concept TEE compatible with PMP in RISC-V was implemented, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed attack scheme was validated through experiments in TEEs. The results indicate that an attacker can bypass the isolation of the TEE and read data from the protected memory region In addition, we experimentally demonstrate that the proposed attack applies to a real-world TEE, Keystone. Furthermore, we propose a software-based countermeasure that prevents the proposed attack.
Timing Black-Box Attacks: Crafting Adversarial Examples through Timing Leaks against DNNs on Embedded Devices 📺
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been applied to various industries. In particular, DNNs on embedded devices have attracted considerable interest because they allow real-time and distributed processing on site. However, adversarial examples (AEs), which add small perturbations to the input data of DNNs to cause misclassification, are serious threats to DNNs. In this paper, a novel black-box attack is proposed to craft AEs based only on processing time, i.e., the side-channel leaks from DNNs on embedded devices. Unlike several existing black-box attacks that utilize output probability, the proposed attack exploits the relationship between the number of activated nodes and processing time without using training data, model architecture, parameters, substitute models, or output probability. The perturbations for AEs are determined by the differential processing time based on the input data of the DNNs in the proposed attack. The experimental results show that the AEs of the proposed attack effectively cause an increase in the number of activated nodes and the misclassification of one of the incorrect labels against the DNNs on a microcontroller unit. Moreover, these results indicate that the attack can evade gradient-masking and confidence reduction countermeasures, which conceal the output probability, to prevent the crafting of AEs against several black-box attacks. Finally, the countermeasures against the attack are implemented and evaluated to clarify that the implementation of an activation function with data-dependent timing leaks is the cause of the proposed attack.
SAEB: A Lightweight Blockcipher-Based AEAD Mode of Operation 📺
Lightweight cryptography in computationally constrained devices is actively studied. In contrast to advances of lightweight blockcipher in the last decade, lightweight mode of operation is seemingly not so mature, yet it has large impact in performance. Therefore, there is a great demand for lightweight mode of operation, especially that for authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). Among many known properties of conventional modes of operation, the following four properties are essential for constrained devices: Minimum State Size: the state size equals to a block size of a blockcipher. Inverse Free: no need for a blockcipher decryption. XOR Only: only XOR is needed in addition to a blockcipher encryption. Online: a data block is processed only once. The properties 1 and 4 contribute to small memory usage, and the properties 2 and 3 contribute to small program/circuit footprint. On top of the above properties, the fifth property regarding associated data (AD) is also important for performance: Efficient Handling of Static AD: static AD can be precomputed. We design a lightweight blockcipher-based AEAD mode of operation called SAEB: the first mode of operation that satisfies all the five properties to the best of our knowledge. Performance of SAEB is evaluated in various software and hardware platforms. The evaluation results show that SAEB outperforms conventional blockcipher-based AEAD modes of operation in various performance metrics for lightweight cryptography.
- CHES 2020
- Asiacrypt 2016
- CHES 2015
- CHES 2014
- Asiacrypt 2014
- CHES 2013