## CryptoDB

### Takeshi Sugawara

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

The Exact Multi-User Security of (Tweakable) Key Alternating Ciphers with a Single Permutation
Abstract

We prove the tight multi-user (mu) security of the (tweakable) key alternating ciphers (KACs) for any round r with a single permutation and r-wise independent subkeys, providing a more realistic provable-security foundation for block ciphers. After Chen and Steinberger proved the single-user (su) tight security bound of r-round KAC in 2014, its extension under more realistic conditions has become a new research challenge. The state-of-the-art includes (i) single permutation by Yu et al., (ii) mu-security by Hoang and Tessaro, and (iii) correlated subkeys by Tessaro and Zhang. However, the previous works considered these conditions independently, and the tight security bound of r-round KACs with all of these conditions is an open research problem. We address it by giving the new mu-bound with an n-bit message space, approximately q*((p+rq)/(2^n))^r , wherein p and q are the number of primitive and construction queries, respectively. The bound ensures the security up to the O(2^(rn/(r+1))) query complexity and is tight, matching the conven- tional upper bound. Moreover, our result easily extends to the r-round tweakable KAC when its subkeys generated by a tweak function is r-wise independent. The proof is based on the re-sampling method originally proposed for the mu-security analysis of the triple encryption. Its extension to any rounds is the core technique enabling the new bound.

2023

TCHES

MMM: Authenticated Encryption with Minimum Secret State for Masking
Abstract

We propose a new authenticated encryption (AE) mode MMM that achieves the minimum memory size with masking. Minimizing the secret state is the crucial challenge in the low-memory AE suitable for masking. Here, the minimum secret state is s + b bits, composed of s bits for a secret key and b bits for a plaintext block. HOMA appeared in CRYPTO 2022 achieved this goal with b = 64, but choosing a smaller b was difficult because b = s/2 is bound to the block size of the underlying primitive, meaning that a block cipher with an unrealistically small block size (e.g., 8 bits) is necessary for further improvement. MMM addresses the issue by making b independent of the underlying primitive while achieving the minimum (s + b)-bit secret state. Moreover, MMM provides additional advantages over HOMA, including (i) a better rate, (ii) the security under the multi-user model, (iii) and a smaller transmission cost. We instantiate two variants, MMM-8 (with b = 8) and MMM-64 (with b = 64), using the standard tweakable block cipher SKINNY-64/192. With a (d + 1)-masking scheme, MMM-8 (resp. MMM-64) is smaller by 56d + 184 (resp. 128) bits compared with HOMA. As a result of hardware performance evaluation, MMM-8 and MMM-64 achieved smaller circuit areas than HOMA with all the examined protection orders d ∈ [0, 5]. MMM-8’s circuit area is only 81% of HOMA with d = 5, and MMM-64 achieves more than x3 speed-up with a smaller circuit area.

2023

TOSC

Committing Security of Ascon: Cryptanalysis on Primitive and Proof on Mode
Abstract

Context-committing security of authenticated encryption (AE) that prevents ciphertexts from being decrypted with distinct decryption contexts, (K,N,A) comprising a key K, a nonce N, and associate data A is an active research field motivated by several real-world attacks. In this paper, we study the context-committing security of Ascon, the lightweight permutation-based AE selected by the NIST LWC in 2023, for cryptanalysis on primitive and proof on mode. The attacker’s goal is to find a collision of a ciphertext and a tag with distinct decryption contexts in which an attacker can control all the parameters including the key. First, we propose new attacks with primitives that inject differences in N and A. The new attack on Ascon-128 improves the number of rounds from 2 to 3 and practically generates distinct decryption contexts. The new attack also works in a practical complexity on 3 rounds of Ascon-128a. Second, we prove the context-committing security of Ascon with zero padding, namely Ascon-zp, in the random permutation model. Ascon-zp achieves min {t+z/2 , n+t−k−ν/2 , c/2}-bit security with a t-bit tag, a z-bit padding, an n-bit state, a ν-bit nonce, and a c-bit inner part. This bound corresponds to min {64 + z/2 , 96} with Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a, and min {64 + z/2 , 80} with Ascon-80pq. The original Ascon (z = 0) achieves 64-bit security bounded by a generic birthday attack. By appending zeroes to the plaintext, the security can be enhanced up to 96 bits for Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a and 80 bits for Ascon-80pq.

2022

CRYPTO

Secret Can Be Public: Low-Memory AEAD Mode for High-Order Masking
📺
Abstract

We propose a new AEAD mode of operation for an efficient countermeasure against side-channel attacks. Our mode achieves the smallest memory with high-order masking, by minimizing the states that are duplicated in masking. An $s$-bit key-dependent state is necessary for achieving $s$-bit security, and the conventional schemes always protect the entire $s$ bits with masking. We reduce the protected state size by introducing an unprotected state in the key-dependent state: we protect only a half and give another half to a side-channel adversary. Ensuring independence between the unprotected and protected states is the key technical challenge since mixing these states reveals the protected state to the adversary. We propose a new mode $\mathsf{HOMA}$ that achieves $s$-bit security using a tweakable block cipher with the $s/2$-bit block size. We also propose a new primitive for instantiating $\mathsf{HOMA}$ with $s=128$ by extending the SKINNY tweakable block cipher to a 64-bit plaintext block, a 128-bit key, and a $(256+3)$-bit tweak. We make hardware performance evaluation by implementing $\mathsf{HOMA}$ with high-order masking for $d \le 5$. For any $d > 0$, $\mathsf{HOMA}$ outperforms the current state-of-the-art $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ by reducing the circuit area larger than that of the entire S-box.

2022

TCHES

Redshift: Manipulating Signal Propagation Delay via Continuous-Wave Lasers
Abstract

We propose a new laser injection attack Redshift that manipulates signal propagation delay, allowing for precise control of oscillator frequencies and other behaviors in delay-sensitive circuits. The target circuits have a significant sensitivity to light, and a low-power continuous-wave laser, similar to a laser pointer, is sufficient for the attack. This is in contrast to previous fault injection attacks that use highpowered laser pulses to flip digital bits. This significantly reduces the cost of the attack and extends the range of possible attackers. Moreover, the attack potentially evades sensor-based countermeasures configured for conventional pulse lasers. To demonstrate Redshift, we target ring-oscillator and arbiter PUFs that are used in cryptographic applications. By precisely controlling signal propagation delays within these circuits, an attacker can control the output of a PUF to perform a state-recovery attack and reveal a secret key. We finally discuss the physical causality of the attack and potential countermeasures.

2021

TCHES

AES-LBBB: AES Mode for Lightweight and BBB-Secure Authenticated Encryption
📺
Abstract

In this paper, a new lightweight authenticated encryption scheme AESLBBB is proposed, which was designed to provide backward compatibility with advanced encryption standard (AES) as well as high security and low memory. The primary design goal, backward compatibility, is motivated by the fact that AES accelerators are now very common for devices in the field; we are interested in designing an efficient and highly secure mode of operation that exploits the best of those AES accelerators. The backward compatibility receives little attention in the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process, in which only 3 out of 32 round-2 candidates are based on AES. Our mode, LBBB, is inspired by the design of ALE in the sense that the internal state size is a minimum 2n bits when using a block cipher of length n bits for the key and data. Unfortunately, there is no security proof of ALE, and forgery attacks have been found on ALE. In LBBB, we introduce an additional feed from block cipher’s output to the key state via a certain permutation λ, which enables us to prove beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security. We then specify its AES instance, AES-LBBB, and evaluate its performance for (i) software implementation on a microcontroller with an AES coprocessor and (ii) hardware implementation for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to show that AES-LBBB performs better than the current state-of-the-art Remus-N2 with AES-128.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Double-Block-Length Hash Function for Minimum Memory Size
📺
Abstract

Sharing a common primitive for multiple functionalities is essential for lightweight cryptography, and NIST's lightweight cryptography competition (LWC) considers the integration of hashing to AEAD. While permutations are natural primitive choices in such a goal, for design diversity, it is interesting to investigate how small block-cipher (BC) based and tweakable block-cipher (TBC) based schemes can be. Double-block-length (DBL) hash function modes are suitable to ensure the same security level for AEAD and hashing, but hard to achieve a small memory size. Romulus, a TBC-based finalist in NIST LWC, introduced the DBL hashing scheme Romulus-H, but it requires $3n+k$ bits of memory using an underlying primitive with an $n$-bit block and a $k$-bit (twea)key. Even the smallest DBL modes in the literature require $2n+k$ bits of memory. Addressing this issue, we present new DBL modes EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieving $(n+k)$-bit state size, i.e., no extra memory in addition to $n+k$ bits needed within the primitive. EXEX-NI is indifferentiable from a random oracle up to $n - \log n$ bits. By instantiating it with SKINNY, we can provide hashing to Romulus with zero memory overhead. EXEX-I is an optimized mode with collision resistance. We finally compare the hardware performances of EXEX-NI and EXEX-I, and Romulus-H with SKINNY-128-384. EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieve the circuit-area reduction by 2,000+ GE, yielding the total areas being smaller than 70% of that of Romulus-H.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Lightweight Authenticated Encryption Mode Suitable for Threshold Implementation
📺
Abstract

This paper proposes tweakable block cipher (TBC) based modes \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus} and \textsf{PFB}$\omega$ that are efficient in threshold implementations (TI). Let $t$ be an algebraic degree of a target function, e.g. $t=1$ (resp. $t>1$) for linear (resp. non-linear) function. The $d$-th order TI encodes the internal state into $d t + 1$ shares. Hence, the area size increases proportionally to the number of shares. This implies that TBC based modes can be smaller than block cipher (BC) based modes in TI because TBC requires $s$-bit block to ensure $s$-bit security, e.g. \textsf{PFB} and \textsf{Romulus}, while BC requires $2s$-bit block. However, even with those TBC based modes, the minimum we can reach is 3 shares of $s$-bit state with $t=2$ and the first-order TI ($d=1$).
Our first design \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus} aims to break the barrier of the $3s$-bit state in TI. The block size of an underlying TBC is $s/2$ bits and the output of TBC is linearly expanded to $s$ bits. This expanded state requires only 2 shares in the first-order TI, which makes the total state size $2.5s$ bits. We also provide rigorous security proof of \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus}. Our second design \textsf{PFB}$\omega$ further increases a parameter $\omega$: a ratio of the security level $s$ to the block size of an underlying TBC. We prove security of \textsf{PFB}$\omega$ for any $\omega$ under some assumptions for an underlying TBC and for parameters used to update a state. Next, we show a concrete instantiation of \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus} for 128-bit security. It requires a TBC with 64-bit block, 128-bit key and 128-bit tweak, while no existing TBC can support it. We design a new TBC by extending \textsf{SKINNY} and provide basic security evaluation. Finally, we give hardware benchmarks of \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus} in the first-order TI to show that TI of \textsf{PFB}\_\textsf{Plus} is smaller than that of \textsf{PFB} by more than one thousand gates and is the smallest within the schemes having 128-bit security.

2020

TOSC

LM-DAE: Low-Memory Deterministic Authenticated Encryption for 128-bit Security
📺
Abstract

This paper proposes a new lightweight deterministic authenticated encryption (DAE) scheme providing 128-bit security. Lightweight DAE schemes are practically important because resource-restricted devices sometimes cannot afford to manage a nonce properly. For this purpose, we first design a new mode LM-DAE that has a minimal state size and uses a tweakable block cipher (TBC). The design can be implemented with low memory and is advantageous in threshold implementations (TI) as a side-channel attack countermeasure. LM-DAE further reduces the implementation cost by eliminating the inverse tweak schedule needed in the previous TBC-based DAE modes. LM-DAE is proven to be indistinguishable from an ideal DAE up to the O(2n) query complexity for the block size n. To achieve 128-bit security, an underlying TBC must handle a 128-bit block, 128-bit key, and 128+4-bit tweak, where the 4-bit tweak comes from the domain separation. To satisfy this requirement, we extend SKINNY-128-256 with an additional 4-bit tweak, by applying the elastic-tweak proposed by Chakraborti et al. We evaluate the hardware performances of the proposed scheme with and without TI. Our LM-DAE implementation achieves 3,717 gates, roughly 15% fewer than state-of-the-art nonce-based schemes, thanks to removing the inverse tweak schedule.

2019

TCHES

3-Share Threshold Implementation of AES S-box without Fresh Randomness
📺
Abstract

Threshold implementation is studied as a countermeasure against sidechannel attack. There had been no threshold implementation for the AES and Keccak S-boxes that satisfies an important property called uniformity. In the conventional implementations, intermediate values are remasked to compensate for the lack of uniformity. The remasking consumes thousands of fresh random bits and its implementation cost is a serious concern. Daemen recently proposed a 3-share uniform threshold implementation of the Keccak S-box. This is enabled by a new technique called the changing of the guards which can be applied to any invertible functions. Subsequently, Wegener et al. proposed a 4-share threshold implementation of the AES S-box based on the changing of the guards technique. However, a 3-share threshold implementation of AES S-box remains open. The difficulty stays in 2-input multiplication, used in decomposed S-box representations, which is non-invertible because of different input and output sizes. In this study, this problem is addressed by introducing a certain generalization of the changing of the guards technique. The proposed method provides a generic way to construct a uniform sharing for a target function having different input and output sizes. The key idea is to transform a target function into an invertible one by adding additional inputs and outputs. Based on the proposed technique, the first 3-share threshold implementation of AES S-box without fresh randomness is presented. Performance evaluation and simulation-based leakage assessment of the implementation are also presented.

2019

TCHES

Lightweight Authenticated Encryption Mode of Operation for Tweakable Block Ciphers
📺
Abstract

The use of a small block length is a common strategy when designing lightweight (tweakable) block ciphers (TBCs), and several 64-bit primitives have been proposed. However, when such a 64-bit primitive is used for an authenticated encryption with birthday-bound security, it has only 32-bit data complexity, which is subject to practical attacks. To employ a short block length without compromising security, we propose PFB, a lightweight TBC-based authenticated encryption with associated data mode, which achieves beyond-birthday-bound security. For this purpose, we extend iCOFB, which is originally defined with a tweakable random function. Unlike iCOFB, the proposed method can be instantiated with a TBC using a fixed tweak length and can handle variable-length data. Moreover, its security bound is improved and independent of the data length; this improves the key lifetime, particularly in lightweight blocks with a small size. The proposed method also covers a broader class of feedback functions because of the generalization presented in our proof. We evaluate the concrete hardware performances of PFB, which benefits from the small block length and shows particularly good performances in threshold implementation.

2018

TCHES

SAEB: A Lightweight Blockcipher-Based AEAD Mode of Operation
📺
Abstract

Lightweight cryptography in computationally constrained devices is actively studied. In contrast to advances of lightweight blockcipher in the last decade, lightweight mode of operation is seemingly not so mature, yet it has large impact in performance. Therefore, there is a great demand for lightweight mode of operation, especially that for authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). Among many known properties of conventional modes of operation, the following four properties are essential for constrained devices:
Minimum State Size: the state size equals to a block size of a blockcipher.
Inverse Free: no need for a blockcipher decryption.
XOR Only: only XOR is needed in addition to a blockcipher encryption.
Online: a data block is processed only once.
The properties 1 and 4 contribute to small memory usage, and the properties 2 and 3 contribute to small program/circuit footprint. On top of the above properties, the fifth property regarding associated data (AD) is also important for performance:
Efficient Handling of Static AD: static AD can be precomputed.
We design a lightweight blockcipher-based AEAD mode of operation called SAEB: the first mode of operation that satisfies all the five properties to the best of our knowledge. Performance of SAEB is evaluated in various software and hardware platforms. The evaluation results show that SAEB outperforms conventional blockcipher-based AEAD modes of operation in various performance metrics for lightweight cryptography.

#### Program Committees

- CHES 2022
- CHES 2021

#### Coauthors

- Takafumi Aoki (1)
- Wayne Burleson (1)
- Benjamin Cyr (1)
- Kevin Fu (1)
- Ryoichi Fujii (1)
- Takeshi Fujino (2)
- Naofumi Homma (1)
- Ryohei Hori (1)
- Mitsuru Matsui (1)
- Yusuke Naito (10)
- Minoru Saeki (1)
- Yu Sasaki (8)
- Akashi Satoh (1)
- Mitsuru Shiozaki (2)
- Takeshi Sugawara (15)
- Daisuke Suzuki (3)
- Shigeaki Tawa (1)
- Kohei Yamashita (1)