International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Ralf Küsters

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
JOFC
Joint State Composition Theorems for Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signature Functionalities with Local Computation
In frameworks for universal composability, complex protocols can be built from sub-protocols in a modular way using composition theorems. However, as first pointed out and studied by Canetti and Rabin, this modular approach often leads to impractical implementations. For example, when using a functionality for digital signatures within a more complex protocol, parties have to generate new verification and signing keys for every session of the protocol. This motivates to generalize composition theorems to so-called joint state (composition) theorems, where different copies of a functionality may share some state, e.g., the same verification and signing keys. In this paper, we present a joint state theorem which is more general than the original theorem of Canetti and Rabin, for which several problems and limitations are pointed out. We apply our theorem to obtain joint state realizations for three functionalities: public-key encryption, replayable public-key encryption, and digital signatures. Unlike most other formulations, our functionalities model that ciphertexts and signatures are computed locally, rather than being provided by the adversary. To obtain the joint state realizations, the functionalities have to be designed carefully. Other formulations proposed in the literature are shown to be unsuitable. Our work is based on the IITM model. Our definitions and results demonstrate the expressivity and simplicity of this model. For example, unlike Canetti’s UC model, in the IITM model no explicit joint state operator needs to be defined and the joint state theorem follows immediately from the composition theorem in the IITM model.
2020
JOFC
The IITM Model: A Simple and Expressive Model for Universal Composability
The universal composability paradigm allows for the modular design and analysis of cryptographic protocols. It has been widely and successfully used in cryptography. However, devising a coherent yet simple and expressive model for universal composability is, as the history of such models shows, highly non-trivial. For example, several partly severe problems have been pointed out in the literature for the UC model. In this work, we propose a coherent model for universal composability, called the IITM model (“Inexhaustible Interactive Turing Machine”). A main feature of the model is that it is stated without a priori fixing irrelevant details, such as a specific way of addressing of machines by session and party identifiers, a specific modeling of corruption, or a specific protocol hierarchy. In addition, we employ a very general notion of runtime. All reasonable protocols and ideal functionalities should be expressible based on this notion in a direct and natural way, and without tweaks, such as (artificial) padding of messages or (artificially) adding extra messages. Not least because of these features, the model is simple and expressive. Also the general results that we prove, such as composition theorems, hold independently of how such details are fixed for concrete applications. Being inspired by other models for universal composability, in particular the UC model and because of the flexibility and expressivity of the IITM model, conceptually, results formulated in these models directly carry over to the IITM model.
2019
ASIACRYPT
iUC: Flexible Universal Composability Made Simple
Proving the security of complex protocols is a crucial and very challenging task. A widely used approach for reasoning about such protocols in a modular way is universal composability. A perfect model for universal composability should provide a sound basis for formal proofs and be very flexible in order to allow for modeling a multitude of different protocols. It should also be easy to use, including useful design conventions for repetitive modeling aspects, such as corruption, parties, sessions, and subroutine relationships, such that protocol designers can focus on the core logic of their protocols.While many models for universal composability exist, including the UC, GNUC, and IITM models, none of them has achieved this ideal goal yet. As a result, protocols cannot be modeled faithfully and/or using these models is a burden rather than a help, often even leading to underspecified protocols and formally incorrect proofs.Given this dire state of affairs, the goal of this work is to provide a framework for universal composability which combines soundness, flexibility, and usability in an unmatched way. Developing such a security framework is a very difficult and delicate task, as the long history of frameworks for universal composability shows.We build our framework, called iUC, on top of the IITM model, which already provides soundness and flexibility while lacking sufficient usability. At the core of iUC is a single simple template for specifying essentially arbitrary protocols in a convenient, formally precise, and flexible way. We illustrate the main features of our framework with example functionalities and realizations.
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2010
EPRINT
Accountability: Definition and Relationship to Verifiability
Many cryptographic tasks and protocols, such as non-repudiation, contract-signing, voting, auction, identity-based encryption, and certain forms of secure multi-party computation, involve the use of (semi-)trusted parties, such as notaries and authorities. It is crucial that such parties can be held accountable in case they misbehave as this is a strong incentive for such parties to follow the protocol. Unfortunately, there does not exist a general and convincing definition of accountability that would allow to assess the level of accountability a protocol provides. In this paper, we therefore propose a new, widely applicable definition of accountability, with interpretations both in symbolic and computational models. Our definition reveals that accountability is closely related to verifiability, for which we also propose a new definition. We prove that verifiability can be interpreted as a restricted form of accountability. Our findings on verifiability are of independent interest. As a proof of concept, we apply our definitions to the analysis of protocols for three different tasks: contract-signing, voting, and auctions. Our analysis unveils some subtleties and unexpected weaknesses, showing in one case that the protocol is unusable in practice. However, for this protocol we propose a fix to establish a reasonable level of accountability.
2010
EPRINT
Ideal Key Derivation and Encryption in Simulation-based Security
Ralf Küsters Max Tuengerthal
Many real-world protocols, such as SSL/TLS, SSH, IPsec, IEEE 802.11i, DNSSEC, and Kerberos, derive new keys from other keys. To be able to analyze such protocols in a composable way, in this paper we extend an ideal functionality for symmetric and public-key encryption proposed in previous work by a mechanism for key derivation. We also equip this functionality with message authentication codes (MACs) and ideal nonce generation. We show that the resulting ideal functionality can be realized based on standard cryptographic assumptions and constructions, hence, providing a solid foundation for faithful, composable cryptographic analysis of real-world security protocols. Based on this new functionality, we identify sufficient criteria for protocols to provide universally composable key exchange and secure channels. Since these criteria are based on the new ideal functionality, checking the criteria requires merely information-theoretic or even only syntactical arguments, rather than involved reduction arguments. As a case study, we use our method to analyze two central protocols of the IEEE 802.11i standard, namely the 4-Way Handshake Protocol and the CCM Protocol, proving composable security properties. As to the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first rigorous cryptographic analysis of these protocols.
2009
EPRINT
Universally Composable Symmetric Encryption
Ralf Küsters Max Tuengerthal
For most basic cryptographic tasks, such as public key encryption, digital signatures, authentication, key exchange, and many other more sophisticated tasks, ideal functionalities have been formulated in the simulation-based security approach, along with their realizations. Surprisingly, however, no such functionality exists for symmetric encryption, except for a more abstract Dolev-Yao style functionality. In this paper, we fill this gap. We propose two functionalities for symmetric encryption, an unauthenticated and an authenticated version, and show that they can be implemented based on standard cryptographic assumptions for symmetric encryption schemes, namely IND-CCA security and authenticated encryption, respectively. We also illustrate the usefulness of our functionalities in applications, both in simulation-based and game-based security settings.
2008
EPRINT
Joint State Theorems for Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signature Functionalities with Local Computation
Ralf Küsters Max Tuengerthal
Composition theorems in simulation-based approaches allow to build complex protocols from sub-protocols in a modular way. However, as first pointed out and studied by Canetti and Rabin, this modular approach often leads to impractical implementations. For example, when using a functionality for digital signatures within a more complex protocol, parties have to generate new verification and signing keys for every session of the protocol. This motivates to generalize composition theorems to so-called joint state theorems, where different copies of a functionality may share some state, e.g., the same verification and signing keys. In this paper, we present a joint state theorem which is more general than the original theorem of Canetti and Rabin, for which several problems and limitations are pointed out. We apply our theorem to obtain joint state realizations for three functionalities: public-key encryption, replayable public-key encryption, and digital signatures. Unlike most other formulations, our functionalities model that ciphertexts and signatures are computed locally, rather than being provided by the adversary. To obtain the joint state realizations, the functionalities have to be designed carefully. Other formulations are shown to be unsuitable. Our work is based on a recently proposed, rigorous model for simulation-based security by K{\"u}sters, called the IITM model. Our definitions and results demonstrate the expressivity and simplicity of this model. For example, unlike Canetti's UC model, in the IITM model no explicit joint state operator needs to be defined and the joint state theorem follows immediately from the composition theorem in the IITM model.
2008
JOFC
2007
EPRINT
On Simulatability Soundness and Mapping Soundness of Symbolic Cryptography
The abstraction of cryptographic operations by term algebras, called Dolev-Yao models or symbolic cryptography, is essential in almost all tool-supported methods for proving security protocols. Recently significant progress was made -- using two conceptually different approaches -- in proving that Dolev-Yao models can be sound with respect to actual cryptographic realizations and security definitions. One such approach is grounded on the notion of simulatability, which constitutes a salient technique of Modern Cryptography with a longstanding history for a variety of different tasks. The other approach strives for the so-called mapping soundness -- a more recent technique that is tailored to the soundness of specific security properties in Dolev-Yao models, and that can be established using more compact proofs. Typically, both notions of soundness for similar Dolev-Yao models are established separately in independent papers. In this paper, the two approaches are related for the first time. Our main result is that simulatability soundness entails mapping soundness provided that both approaches use the same cryptographic implementation. Interestingly, this result does not dependent on details of the simulator, which translates between cryptographic implementations and their Dolev-Yao abstractions in simulatability soundness. Hence, future research may well concentrate on simulatability soundness whenever applicable, and resort to mapping soundness in those cases where simulatability soundness is too strong a notion.
2007
EPRINT
A Cryptographic Model for Branching Time Security Properties -- the Case of Contract Signing Protocols
Some cryptographic tasks, such as contract signing and other related tasks, need to ensure complex, branching time security properties. When defining such properties one needs to deal with subtle problems regarding the scheduling of non-deterministic decisions, the delivery of messages sent on resilient (non-adversarially controlled) channels, fair executions (executions where no party, both honest and dishonest, is unreasonably precluded to perform its actions), and defining strategies of adversaries against all possible non-deterministic choices of parties and arbitrary delivery of messages via resilient channels. These problems are typically not addressed in cryptographic models and these models therefore do not suffice to formalize branching time properties, such as those required of contract signing protocols. In this paper, we develop a cryptographic model that deals with all of the above problems. One central feature of our model is a general definition of fair scheduling which not only formalizes fair scheduling of resilient channels but also fair scheduling of actions of honest and dishonest principals. Based on this model and the notion of fair scheduling, we provide a definition of a prominent branching time property of contract signing protocols, namely balance, and give the first \emph{cryptographic} proof that the Asokan-Shoup-Waidner two-party contract signing protocol is balanced.
2006
EPRINT
Computationally Sound Symbolic Secrecy in the Presence of Hash Functions
The standard symbolic, deducibility-based notions of secrecy are in general insufficient from a cryptographic point of view, especially in presence of hash functions. In this paper we devise and motivate a more appropriate secrecy criterion which exactly captures a standard cryptographic notion of secrecy for protocols involving public-key enryption and hash functions: protocols that satisfy it are computationally secure while any violation of our criterion directly leads to an attack. Furthermore, we prove that our criterion is decidable via an NP decision procedure. Our results hold for standard security notions for encryption and hash functions modeled as random oracles.
2006
EPRINT
Conditional Reactive Simulatability
Simulatability has established itself as a salient notion for defining and proving the security of cryptographic protocols since it entails strong security and compositionality guarantees, which are achieved by universally quantifying over all environmental behaviors of the analyzed protocol. As a consequence, however, protocols that are secure except for certain environmental behaviors are not simulatable, even if these behaviors are efficiently identifiable and thus can be prevented by the surrounding protocol. We propose a relaxation of simulatability by conditioning the permitted environmental behaviors, i.e., simulation is only required for environmental behaviors that fulfill explicitly stated constraints. This yields a more fine-grained security definition that is achievable i) for several protocols for which unconditional simulatability is too strict a notion or ii) at lower cost for the underlying cryptographic primitives. Although imposing restrictions on the environment destroys unconditional composability in general, we show that the composition of a large class of conditionally simulatable protocols yields protocols that are again simulatable under suitable conditions. This even holds for the case of cyclic assume-guarantee conditions where protocols only guarantee suitable behavior if they themselves are offered certain guarantees. Furthermore, composing several commonly investigated protocol classes with conditionally simulatable subprotocols yields protocols that are again simulatable in the standard, unconditional sense.
2006
EPRINT
Simulation-Based Security with Inexhaustible Interactive Turing Machines
Ralf Küsters
Recently, there has been much interest in extending models for simulation-based security in such a way that the runtime of protocols may depend on the length of their input. Finding such extensions has turned out to be a non-trivial task. In this work, we propose a simple, yet expressive general computational model for systems of Interactive Turing Machines (ITMs) where the runtime of the ITMs may be polynomial per activation and may depend on the length of the input received. One distinguishing feature of our model is that the systems of ITMs that we consider involve a generic mechanism for addressing dynamically generated copies of ITMs. We study properties of such systems and, in particular, show that systems satisfying a certain acyclicity condition run in polynomial time. Based on our general computational model, we state different notions of simulation-based security in a uniform and concise way, study their relationships, and prove a general composition theorem for composing a polynomial number of copies of protocols, where the polynomial is determined by the environment. The simplicity of our model is demonstrated by the fact that many of our results can be proved by mere equational reasoning based on a few equational principles on systems.
2006
EPRINT
On the Relationships Between Notions of Simulation-Based Security
Several compositional forms of simulation-based security have been proposed in the literature, including universal composability, black-box simulatability, and variants thereof. These relations between a protocol and an ideal functionality are similar enough that they can be ordered from strongest to weakest according to the logical form of their definitions. However, determining whether two relations are in fact identical depends on some subtle features that have not been brought out in previous studies. We identify the position of a ``master process" in the distributed system, and some limitations on transparent message forwarding within computational complexity bounds, as two main factors. Using a general computational framework, called Sequential Probabilistic Process Calculus (SPPC), we clarify the relationships between the simulation-based security conditions. We also prove general composition theorems in SPPC. Many of the proofs are carried out based on a small set of equivalence principles involving processes and distributed systems. This gives us results that carry over to a variety of computational models.
2005
TCC

Program Committees

Crypto 2012