Mind the Propagation of States New Automatic Search Tool for Impossible Differentials and Impossible Polytopic Transitions 📺
Impossible differentials cryptanalysis and impossible polytopic cryptanalysis are the most effective approaches to estimate the security of block ciphers. However, the previous automatic search methods of their distinguishers, impossible differentials and impossible polytopic transitions, neither consider the impact of key schedule in the single-key setting and the differential property of large S-boxes, nor apply to the block ciphers with variable rotations. Thus, unlike previous methods which focus on the propagation of the difference or s-difference, we redefine the impossible differentials and impossible (s + 1)-polytopic transitions according to the propagation of state, which allow us to break through those limitations of the previous methods. Theoretically, we prove that traditional impossible differentials and impossible (s+1)-polytopic transitions are equivalent to part of our redefinitions, which have advantages from broader view. Technically, we renew the automatic search model and design an SAT-based tool to evaluate our redefined impossible differentials and impossible (s + 1)-polytopic transitions efficiently. As a result, for GIFT64, we get the 6-round impossible differentials which cannot be detected by all previous tools. For PRINTcipher, we propose the first modeling method for the key-dependent permutation and key-dependent S-box. For MISTY1, we derive 902 4-round impossible differentials by exploiting the differential property of S-boxes. For RC5, we present the first modeling method for the variable rotation and get 2.5-round impossible differentials for each version of it. More remarkable, our tool can be used to evaluate the security of given cipher against the impossible differentials, and we prove that there exists no 5-round 1 input active word and 1 output active word impossible differentials for AES-128 even consider the relations of 3-round keys. Besides, we also get the impossible (s + 1)-polytopic transitions for PRINTcipher, GIFT64, PRESENT, and RC5, all of which can cover more rounds than their corresponding impossible differentials as far as we know.
On the Generalization of Butterfly Structure
Butterfly structure was proposed in CRYPTO 2016 [PUB16], and it can generate permutations over
Optimal Differential Trails in SIMON-like Ciphers
In the present paper, we propose an automatic search algorithm for optimal differential trails in SIMON-like ciphers. First, we give a more accurate upper bound on the differential probability of SIMON-like round function. It is shown that when the Hamming weight of the input difference α , which is denoted by wt(α), is less than one half of the input size, the corresponding maximum differential probability of SIMON-like round function is less than or equal to 2−wt(α)−1. Based on this, we adapt Matsui’s algorithm and propose an efficient algorithm for searching for optimal differential trails. With the proposed algorithm, we find the provably optimal differential trails for 12, 16, 19, 28 and 37 rounds of SIMON32/48/64/96/128. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the provably optimal differential trails for SIMON64, SIMON96 and SIMON128 are reported. The provably optimal differential trails for 13, 19 and 25 rounds of SIMECK32/48/64 are also found respectively, which confirm the results given by Kölbl et al. [KR15]. Besides the optimal differential trails, we also find the 14, 17, 23, 31 and 41-round differentials for SIMON32/48/64/96/128, and 14, 21 and 27-round differentials for SIMECK32/48/64, respectively. As far as we know, these are the best differential distinguishers for SIMON and SIMECK so far. Compared with the approach based on SAT/SMT solvers used by K¨olbl et al., our algorithm is more efficient and more practical to evaluate the security against differential cryptanalysis in the design of SIMON-like ciphers.