## CryptoDB

### Khoa Nguyen

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

PKC

Fully Dynamic Attribute-Based Signatures for Circuits from Codes
Abstract

Attribute-Based Signature (ABS), introduced by Maji et al. (CT-RSA'11), is an advanced privacy-preserving signature primitive that has gained a lot of attention. Research on ABS can be categorized into three main themes: expanding the expressiveness of signing policies, enabling new functionalities, and providing more diversity in terms of computational assumptions. We contribute to the development of ABS in all three dimensions, by providing a fully dynamic ABS scheme for arbitrary circuits from codes. The scheme is the first ABS from code-based assumptions and also the first ABS system offering the \texttt{full dynamicity} functionality (i.e., attributes can be enrolled and revoked simultaneously). Moreover, the scheme features much shorter signature size than a lattice-based counterpart proposed by El Kaafarani and Katsumata (PKC'18).
In the construction process, we put forward a new theoretical abstraction of Stern-like zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols, which are the major tools for privacy-preserving cryptography from codes. Our main insight here actually lies in the questions we ask about the fundamental principles of Stern-like protocols that have remained unchallenged since their conception by Stern at CRYPTO'93. We demonstrate that these long-established principles are not essential, and then provide a refined framework generalizing existing Stern-like techniques and enabling enhanced constructions.

2023

JOFC

Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Lattice-Based Accumulators: Logarithmic-Size Ring Signatures and Group Signatures Without Trapdoors
Abstract

An accumulator is a function that hashes a set of inputs into a short, constant-size string while preserving the ability to efficiently prove the inclusion of a specific input element in the hashed set. It has proved useful in the design of numerous privacy-enhancing protocols, in order to handle revocation or simply prove set membership. In the lattice setting, currently known instantiations of the primitive are based on Merkle trees, which do not interact well with zero-knowledge proofs. In order to efficiently prove the membership of some element in a zero-knowledge manner, the prover has to demonstrate knowledge of a hash chain without revealing it, which is not known to be efficiently possible under well-studied hardness assumptions. In this paper, we provide an efficient method of proving such statements using involved extensions of Stern’s protocol. Under the Small Integer Solution assumption, we provide zero-knowledge arguments showing possession of a hash chain. As an application, we describe new lattice-based group and ring signatures in the random oracle model. In particular, we obtain: (i) the first lattice-based ring signatures with logarithmic size in the cardinality of the ring and (ii) the first lattice-based group signature that does not require any GPV trapdoor and thus allows for a much more efficient choice of parameters.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Bicameral and Auditably Private Signatures
Abstract

This paper introduces Bicameral and Auditably Private Signatures (BAPS) -- a new privacy-preserving signature system with several novel features. In a BAPS system, given a certified attribute $\mathbf{x}$ and a certified policy $P$, a signer can issue
a publicly verifiable signature $\Sigma$ on a message $m$ as long as $(m, \mathbf{x})$ satisfies $P$. A noteworthy characteristic of BAPS is that both attribute $\mathbf{x}$ and policy $P$ are kept hidden from the verifier, yet the latter is convinced that these objects were certified by an attribute-issuing authority and a policy-issuing authority, respectively. By considering \textsf{bicameral certification authorities} and requiring privacy for both attributes and policies, BAPS generalizes the spirit of existing advanced signature primitives with fine-grained controls on signing capabilities (e.g., attribute-based signatures, predicate signatures, policy-based signatures). Furthermore, BAPS provides an appealing feature named \textsf{auditable privacy}, allowing the signer of $\Sigma$ to verifiably disclose various pieces of partial information about $P$ and $\mathbf{x}$ when asked by auditor(s)/court(s) at later times. Auditable privacy is intrinsically different from and can be complementary to the notion of accountable privacy traditionally incorporated in traceable anonymous systems such as group signatures. Equipped with these distinguished features, BAPS can potentially address interesting application scenarios for which existing primitives do not offer a direct solution.
We provide rigorous security definitions for BAPS, following a ``sim-ext'' approach. We then demonstrate a generic construction based on commonly used cryptographic building blocks, which makes use of a \textsf{sign-then-commit-then-prove} design. Finally, we present a concrete instantiation of BAPS, that is proven secure in the random oracle model under lattice assumptions. The scheme can handle arbitrary policies represented by polynomial-size Boolean circuits and can address quadratic disclosing functions. In the construction process, we develop a new technical building block that could be of independent interest: a zero-knowledge argument system allowing to prove the satisfiability of a certified-and-hidden Boolean circuit on certified-and-committed inputs.

2022

EUROCRYPT

One-Shot Fiat-Shamir-based NIZK Arguments of Composite Residuosity and Logarithmic-Size Ring Signatures in the Standard Model
📺
Abstract

The standard model security of the Fiat-Shamir transform has been an active research area for many years. In breakthrough results, Canetti {\it et al.} (STOC'19) and Peikert-Shiehian (Crypto'19) showed that, under the Learning-With-Errors (LWE) assumption, it provides soundness by applying correlation-intractable (CI) hash functions to so-called {\it trapdoor} $\Sigma$-protocols. In order to be compatible with CI hash functions based on standard LWE assumptions with polynomial approximation factors, all known such protocols have been obtained via parallel repetitions of a basic protocol with binary challenges. In this paper, we consider languages related to Paillier's composite residuosity assumption (DCR) for which we give the first trapdoor $\Sigma$-protocols providing soundness in one shot, via exponentially large challenge spaces. This improvement is analogous to the one enabled by Schnorr over the original Fiat-Shamir protocol in the random oracle model. Using the correlation-intractable hash function paradigm, we then obtain simulation-sound NIZK arguments showing that an element of $\mathbb{Z}_{N^2}^\ast$ is a composite residue, which opens the door to space-efficient applications in the standard model. As a concrete example, we build logarithmic-size ring signatures (assuming a common reference string) with the shortest signature length among schemes based on standard assumptions in the standard model. We prove security under the DCR and LWE assumptions, while keeping the signature size comparable with that of random-oracle-based schemes.

2022

CRYPTO

Multimodal Private Signatures
📺
Abstract

We introduce Multimodal Private Signature (MPS) - an anonymous signature system that offers a novel accountability feature: it allows a designated opening authority to learn \emph{some partial information}~$\ms{op}$ about the signer's identity $\ms{id}$, and nothing beyond. Such partial information can flexibly be defined as $\ms{op} = \ms{id}$ (as in group signatures), or as $\ms{op} = \mb{0}$ (like in ring signatures), or more generally, as $\ms{op} = G_j(\ms{id})$, where $G_j(\cdot)$ is certain disclosing function. Importantly, the value of $op$ is known in advanced by the signer, and hence, the latter can decide whether she/he wants to disclose that piece of information. The concept of MPS significantly generalizes the notion of tracing in traditional anonymity-oriented signature primitives, and can enable various new and appealing privacy-preserving applications.
We formalize the definitions and security requirements for MPS. We next present a generic construction to demonstrate the feasibility of designing MPS in a modular manner and from commonly used cryptographic building blocks (ordinary signatures, public-key encryption and NIZKs). We also provide an efficient construction in the standard model based on pairings, and a lattice-based construction in the random oracle model.

2021

EUROCRYPT

"Bifurcated Cryptography" Folding Competing Cryptosystems into a Single Scheme: On Accountability vs. Anonymity in Private Signatures
📺
Abstract

Over the development of modern cryptography, often, alternative cryptographic schemes are developed to achieve goals that in some important respect are orthogonal. Thus, we have to choose either a scheme which achieves the first goal and not the second, or vice versa.
This results in two types of schemes that compete with each other. In the basic area of user privacy, specifically in anonymous (multi-use credentials) signing, such an orthogonality exists between anonymity and accountability.
The conceptual contribution of this work is to reverse the above orthogonality by design, which essentially typifies the last 25 years or so, and to suggest an alternative methodology where the opposed properties are carefully folded into a single scheme. The schemes will support both opposing properties simultaneously in a bifurcated fashion, where:
- First, based on rich semantics expressed over the message's context and content, the user, etc., the relevant property is applied point-wise per message operation depending on a predicate; and
- Secondly, at the same time, the schemes provide what we call ``branch-hiding;'' namely, the resulting calculated value hides from outsiders which property has actually been locally applied.
Specifically, we precisely define and give the first construction and security proof of a ``Bifurcated Anonymous Signature'' (BiAS): A scheme which supports either absolute anonymity or anonymity with accountability, based on a specific contextual predicate, while being branch-hiding. This novel signing scheme has numerous applications not easily implementable or not considered before, especially because: (i) the conditional traceability does 'not' rely on a trusted authority as it is (non-interactively) encapsulated into signatures; and (ii) signers 'know' the predicate value and can make a conscious choice at each signing time.
Technically, we realize BiAS from homomorphic commitments for a general family of predicates that can be represented by bounded-depth circuits. Our construction is generic and can be instantiated in the standard model from lattices and, more efficiently, from bilinear maps. In particular, the signature length is independent of the circuit size when we use commitments with suitable efficiency properties.

2021

PKC

Non-Interactive CCA2-Secure Threshold Cryptosystems: Achieving Adaptive Security in the Standard Model Without Pairings
📺
Abstract

We consider threshold public-key encryption, where the decryption servers distributively hold the private key shares, and we need a threshold of these servers to decrypt the message (while the system remains secure when less than the threshold is corrupt). We investigate the notion of chosen-ciphertext secure threshold systems which has been historically hard to achieve. We further require the systems to be, both, adaptively secure (i.e., secure against a strong adversary making corruption decisions dynamically during the protocol), and non-interactive (i.e., where decryption servers do not interact amongst themselves but rather efficiently contribute, each, a single message). To date, only pairing-based implementations were known to achieve security in the standard security model without relaxation (i.e., without assuming the random oracle idealization) under the above stringent requirements. Here, we investigate how to achieve the above using other assumptions (in order to understand what other algebraic building blocks and mathematical assumptions are needed to extend the domain of encryption methods achieving the above). Specifically, we show realizations under the Decision Composite Residuosity (DCR) and Learning-With-Errors (LWE) assumptions.

2021

PKC

Group Encryption: Full Dynamicity, Message Filtering and Code-Based Instantiation
📺
Abstract

Group encryption (\textsf{GE}), introduced by Kiayias, Tsiounis and Yung (Asiacrypt'07), is the encryption analogue of group signatures. It allows to send verifiably encrypted messages satisfying certain requirements to certified members of a group, while keeping the anonymity of the receivers. Similar to the tracing mechanism in group signatures, the receiver of any ciphertext can be identified by an opening authority - should the needs arise. The primitive of \textsf{GE} is motivated by a number of interesting privacy-preserving applications, including the filtering of encrypted emails sent to certified members of an organization.
This paper aims to improve the state-of-affairs of \textsf{GE} systems. Our first contribution is the formalization of fully dynamic group encryption (\textsf{FDGE}) - a \textsf{GE} system simultaneously supporting dynamic user enrolments and user revocations. The latter functionality for \textsf{GE} has not been considered so far. As a second contribution, we realize the message filtering feature for \textsf{GE} based on a list of $t$-bit keywords and $2$ commonly used policies: ``permissive'' - accept the message if it contains at least one of the keywords as a substring; ``prohibitive'' - accept the message if all of its $t$-bit substrings are at Hamming distance at least $d$ from all keywords, for $d \geq 1$. This feature so far has not been substantially addressed in existing instantiations of \textsf{GE} based on DCR, DDH, pairing-based and lattice-based assumptions. Our third contribution is the first instantiation of GE under code-based assumptions. The scheme is more efficient than the lattice-based construction of Libert et al. (Asiacrypt'16) - which, prior to our work, is the only known instantiation of \textsf{GE} under post-quantum assumptions. Our scheme supports the $2$ suggested policies for message filtering, and in the random oracle model, it satisfies the stringent security notions for \textsf{FDGE} that we put forward.

2020

PKC

PAKEs: New Framework, New Techniques and More Efficient Lattice-Based Constructions in the Standard Model
📺
Abstract

Password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) allows two parties with a shared password to agree on a session key. In the last decade, the design of PAKE protocols from lattice assumptions has attracted lots of attention. However, existing solutions in the standard model do not have appealing efficiency. In this work, we first introduce a new PAKE framework. We then provide two realizations in the standard model, under the Learning With Errors (LWE) and Ring-LWE assumptions, respectively. Our protocols are much more efficient than previous proposals, thanks to three novel technical ingredients that may be of independent interests. The first ingredient consists of two approximate smooth projective hash (ASPH) functions from LWE, as well as two ASPHs from Ring-LWE. The latter are the first ring-based constructions in the literature, one of which only has a quasi-linear runtime while its function value contains $$varTheta (n)$$ field elements (where n is the degree of the polynomial defining the ring). The second ingredient is a new key conciliation scheme that is approximately rate-optimal and that leads to a very efficient key derivation for PAKE protocols. The third one is a new authentication code that allows to verify a MAC with a noisy key.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Lattice-Based E-Cash, Revisited
📺
Abstract

Electronic cash (e-cash) was introduced 40 years ago as the digital analogue of traditional cash. It allows users to withdraw electronic coins that can be spent anonymously with merchants. As advocated by Camenisch et al. (Eurocrypt 2005), it should be possible to store the withdrawn coins compactly (i.e., with logarithmic cost in the total number of coins), which has led to the notion of compact e-cash. Many solutions were proposed for this problem but the security proofs of most of them were invalidated by a very recent paper by Bourse et al. (Asiacrypt 2019). The same paper describes a generic way of fixing existing constructions/proofs but concrete instantiations of this patch are currently unknown in some settings. In particular, compact e-cash is no longer known to exist under quantum-safe assumptions.
In this work, we resolve this problem by proposing the first secure compact e-cash system based on lattices following the result from Bourse et al. Contrarily to the latter work, our construction is not only generic, but we describe two concrete instantiations. We depart from previous frameworks of e-cash systems by leveraging lossy trapdoor functions to construct our coins. The indistinguishability of lossy and injective keys allows us to avoid the very strong requirements on the involved pseudo-random functions that were necessary to instantiate the generic patch proposed by Bourse et al.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Simulation-Sound Arguments for LWE and Applications to KDM-CCA2 Security
📺
Abstract

The Naor-Yung paradigm is a well-known technique that constructs IND-CCA2-secure encryption schemes by means of non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs satisfying a notion of simulation-soundness. Until recently, it was an open problem to instantiate it under the sole Learning-With-Errors (LWE) assumption without relying on random oracles. While the recent results of Canetti et al. (STOC'19) and Peikert-Shiehian (Crypto'19) provide a solution to this problem by applying the Fiat-Shamir transform in the standard model, the resulting constructions are extremely inefficient as they proceed via a reduction to an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we give a direct, non-generic method for instantiating Naor-Yung under the LWE assumption outside the random oracle model. Specifically, we give a direct construction of an unbounded simulation-sound NIZK argument system which, for carefully chosen parameters, makes it possible to express the equality of plaintexts encrypted under different keys in Regev's cryptosystem. We also give a variant of our argument that provides tight security. As an application, we obtain an LWE-based public-key encryption scheme for which we can prove (tight) key-dependent message security under chosen-ciphertext attacks in the standard model.

2019

PKC

Zero-Knowledge Elementary Databases with More Expressive Queries
Abstract

Zero-knowledge elementary databases (ZK-EDBs) are cryptographic schemes that allow a prover to commit to a set $$\mathsf {D}$$ of key-value pairs so as to be able to prove statements such as “x belongs to the support of $$\mathsf {D}$$ and $$\mathsf {D}(x)=y$$” or “x is not in the support of $$\mathsf {D}$$”. Importantly, proofs should leak no information beyond the proven statement and even the size of $$\mathsf {D}$$ should remain private. Chase et al. (Eurocrypt’05) showed that ZK-EDBs are implied by a special flavor of non-interactive commitment, called mercurial commitment, which enables efficient instantiations based on standard number theoretic assumptions. On the other hand, the resulting ZK-EDBs are only known to support proofs for simple statements like (non-)membership and value assignments. In this paper, we show that mercurial commitments actually enable significantly richer queries. We show that, modulo an additional security property met by all known efficient constructions, they actually enable range queries over keys and values – even for ranges of super-polynomial size – as well as membership/non-membership queries over the space of values. Beyond that, we exploit the range queries to realize richer queries such as $$k$$-nearest neighbors and revealing the $$k$$ smallest or largest records within a given range. In addition, we provide a new realization of trapdoor mercurial commitment from standard lattice assumptions, thus obtaining the most expressive quantum-safe ZK-EDB construction so far.

2019

ASIACRYPT

New Code-Based Privacy-Preserving Cryptographic Constructions
Abstract

Code-based cryptography has a long history but did suffer from periods of slow development. The field has recently attracted a lot of attention as one of the major branches of post-quantum cryptography. However, its subfield of privacy-preserving cryptographic constructions is still rather underdeveloped, e.g., important building blocks such as zero-knowledge range proofs and set membership proofs, and even proofs of knowledge of a hash preimage, have not been known under code-based assumptions. Moreover, almost no substantial technical development has been introduced in the last several years.This work introduces several new code-based privacy-preserving cryptographic constructions that considerably advance the state-of-the-art in code-based cryptography. Specifically, we present 3 major contributions, each of which potentially yields various other applications. Our first contribution is a code-based statistically hiding and computationally binding commitment scheme with companion zero-knowledge (ZK) argument of knowledge of a valid opening that can be easily extended to prove that the committed bits satisfy other relations. Our second contribution is the first code-based zero-knowledge range argument for committed values, with communication cost logarithmic in the size of the range. A special feature of our range argument is that, while previous works on range proofs/arguments (in all branches of cryptography) only address ranges of non-negative integers, our protocol can handle signed fractional numbers, and hence, can potentially find a larger scope of applications. Our third contribution is the first code-based Merkle-tree accumulator supported by ZK argument of membership, which has been known to enable various interesting applications. In particular, it allows us to obtain the first code-based ring signatures and group signatures with logarithmic signature sizes.

2018

CRYPTO

Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Integer Relations
📺
Abstract

We provide lattice-based protocols allowing to prove relations among committed integers. While the most general zero-knowledge proof techniques can handle arithmetic circuits in the lattice setting, adapting them to prove statements over the integers is non-trivial, at least if we want to handle exponentially large integers while working with a polynomial-size modulus q. For a polynomial L, we provide zero-knowledge arguments allowing a prover to convince a verifier that committed L-bit bitstrings x, y and z are the binary representations of integers X, Y and Z satisfying $$Z=X+Y$$ over $$\mathbb {Z}$$. The complexity of our arguments is only linear in L. Using them, we construct arguments allowing to prove inequalities $$X<Z$$ among committed integers, as well as arguments showing that a committed X belongs to a public interval $$[\alpha ,\beta ]$$, where $$\alpha $$ and $$\beta $$ can be arbitrarily large. Our range arguments have logarithmic cost (i.e., linear in L) in the maximal range magnitude. Using these tools, we obtain zero-knowledge arguments showing that a committed element X does not belong to a public set S using $$\widetilde{\mathcal {O}}(n \cdot \log |S|)$$ bits of communication, where n is the security parameter. We finally give a protocol allowing to argue that committed L-bit integers X, Y and Z satisfy multiplicative relations $$Z=XY$$ over the integers, with communication cost subquadratic in L. To this end, we use our protocol for integer addition to prove the correct recursive execution of Karatsuba’s multiplication algorithm. The security of our protocols relies on standard lattice assumptions with polynomial modulus and polynomial approximation factor.

2018

PKC

Constant-Size Group Signatures from Lattices
Abstract

Lattice-based group signature is an active research topic in recent years. Since the pioneering work by Gordon, Katz and Vaikuntanathan (Asiacrypt 2010), ten other schemes have been proposed, providing various improvements in terms of security, efficiency and functionality. However, in all known constructions, one has to fix the number N of group users in the setup stage, and as a consequence, the signature sizes are dependent on N.In this work, we introduce the first constant-size group signature from lattices, which means that the size of signatures produced by the scheme is independent of N and only depends on the security parameter $$\lambda $$λ. More precisely, in our scheme, the sizes of signatures, public key and users’ secret keys are all of order $$\widetilde{\mathcal {O}}(\lambda )$$O~(λ). The scheme supports dynamic enrollment of users and is proven secure in the random oracle model under the Ring Short Integer Solution (RSIS) and Ring Learning With Errors (RLWE) assumptions. At the heart of our design is a zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of a valid message-signature pair for the Ducas-Micciancio signature scheme (Crypto 2014), that may be of independent interest.

2016

EUROCRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Asiacrypt 2024
- Asiacrypt 2023
- Asiacrypt 2021
- Asiacrypt 2020
- Asiacrypt 2019
- Asiacrypt 2018
- Asiacrypt 2017

#### Coauthors

- Amit Deo (1)
- Julien Devevey (1)
- Martianus Frederic Ezerman (1)
- Guang Gong (1)
- Fuchun Guo (1)
- Jingnan He (1)
- Shaoquan Jiang (1)
- Hyung Tae Lee (1)
- Benoît Libert (13)
- San Ling (13)
- Fabrice Mouhartem (3)
- Khoa Nguyen (24)
- Alain Passelègue (1)
- Thomas Peters (3)
- Duong Hieu Phan (1)
- Adeline Roux-Langlois (1)
- Partha Sarathi Roy (1)
- Reihaneh Safavi-Naini (1)
- Olivier Sanders (1)
- Damien Stehlé (1)
- Willy Susilo (3)
- Benjamin Hong Meng Tan (1)
- Khai Hanh Tang (1)
- Hanh Tang (1)
- Radu Titiu (1)
- Huaxiong Wang (17)
- Yanhong Xu (4)
- Guomin Yang (1)
- Moti Yung (3)
- Neng Zeng (2)