International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Guang Gong

Affiliation: University of Waterloo


PAKEs: New Framework, New Techniques and More Efficient Lattice-Based Constructions in the Standard Model 📺
Password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) allows two parties with a shared password to agree on a session key. In the last decade, the design of PAKE protocols from lattice assumptions has attracted lots of attention. However, existing solutions in the standard model do not have appealing efficiency. In this work, we first introduce a new PAKE framework. We then provide two realizations in the standard model, under the Learning With Errors (LWE) and Ring-LWE assumptions, respectively. Our protocols are much more efficient than previous proposals, thanks to three novel technical ingredients that may be of independent interests. The first ingredient consists of two approximate smooth projective hash (ASPH) functions from LWE, as well as two ASPHs from Ring-LWE. The latter are the first ring-based constructions in the literature, one of which only has a quasi-linear runtime while its function value contains $$varTheta (n)$$ field elements (where n is the degree of the polynomial defining the ring). The second ingredient is a new key conciliation scheme that is approximately rate-optimal and that leads to a very efficient key derivation for PAKE protocols. The third one is a new authentication code that allows to verify a MAC with a noisy key.
WAGE: An Authenticated Encryption with a Twist
This paper presents WAGE, a new lightweight sponge-based authenticated cipher whose underlying permutation is based on a 37-stage Galois NLFSR over F27. At its core, the round function of the permutation consists of the well-analyzed Welch-Gong permutation (WGP), primitive feedback polynomial, a newly designed 7-bit SB sbox and partial word-wise XORs. The construction of the permutation is carried out such that the design of individual components is highly coupled with cryptanalysis and hardware efficiency. As such, we analyze the security of WAGE against differential, linear, algebraic and meet/miss-in-the-middle attacks. For 128-bit authenticated encryption security, WAGE achieves a throughput of 535 Mbps with hardware area of 2540 GE in ASIC ST Micro 90 nm standard cell library. Additionally, WAGE is designed with a twist where its underlying permutation can be efficiently turned into a pseudorandom bit generator based on the WG transformation (WG-PRBG) whose output bits have theoretically proved randomness properties.
Time-Memory-Data Trade-off Attack on Stream Ciphers based on Maiorana-McFarland Functions
In this paper, we present the time-memory-data (TMD) trade-off attack on stream ciphers filtered by Maiorana-McFarland functions. This can be considered as a generalization of the time-memory-data trade-off attack of Mihaljevic and Imai on Toyocrypt. First, we substitute the filter function in Toyocrypt (which has the same size as the LFSR) with a general Maiorana-McFarland function. This allows us to apply the attack to a wider class of stream ciphers. Second, we highlight how the choice of different Maiorana-McFarland functions can affect the effectiveness of our attack. Third, we show that the attack can be modified to apply on filter functions which are smaller than the LFSR and on filter-combiner stream ciphers. This allows us to cryptanalyze other configurations commonly found in practice. Finally, filter functions with vector output are sometimes used in stream ciphers to improve the throughput. Therefore the case when the Maiorana-McFarland functions have vector output is investigated. We found that the extra speed comes at the price of additional weaknesses which make the attacks easier.
Algebraic Immunity of S-boxes Based on Power Mappings: Analysis and Construction
The algebraic immunity of an S-box depends on the number and type of linearly independent multivariate equations it satisfies. In this paper techniques are developed to find the number of linearly independent, multivariate, bi-affine and quadratic equations for S-boxes based on power mappings. These techniques can be used to prove the exact number of equations for any class of power mappings. Two algorithms to calculate the number of bi-affine and quadratic equations for any $(n,n)$ S-box based on power mapping are also presented. The time complexity of both algorithms is only $O(n^2)$. To design algebraically immune S-boxes four new classes of S-boxes that guarantee zero bi-affine equations and one class of S-boxes that guarantees zero quadratic equations are presented. The algebraic immunity of power mappings based on Kasami, Niho, Dobbertin, Gold, Welch and Inverse exponents are discussed along with other cryptographic properties and several cryptographically strong S-boxes are identified. It is conjectured that a known Kasami like APN power mapping is maximally nonlinear and a known Kasami like maximally nonlinear power mapping is differentially 4-uniform. Finally an open problem to find an $(n,n)$ bijective nonlinear S-box with more than $5n$ quadratic equations is solved and it is conjectured that the upper bound on this number is $\frac{n(n-1)}{2}$.
A 32-bit RC4-like Keystream Generator
In this paper we propose a new 32-bit RC4 like keystream generator. The proposed generator produces 32 bits in each iteration and can be implemented in software with reasonable memory requirements. Our experiments show that this generator is 3.2 times faster than original 8-bit RC4. It has a huge internal state and offers higher resistance against state recovery attacks than the original 8-bit RC4. We analyze the randomness properties of the generator using a probabilistic approach. The generator is suitable for high speed software encryption.
Password Based Key Exchange with Mutual Authentication
Shaoquan Jiang Guang Gong
A reasonably efficient password based key exchange (KE) protocol with provable security without random oracle was recently proposed by Katz, {\em et al.} \cite{KOY01} and later by Gennaro and Lindell \cite{GL03}. However, these protocols do not support mutual authentication (MA). The authors explained that this could be achieved by adding an additional flow. But then this protocol turns out to be 4-round. As it is known that a high entropy secret based key exchange protocol with MA\footnote{we do not consider a protocol with a time stamp or a stateful protocol (e.g., a counter based protocol). In other words, we only consider protocols in which a session execution within an entity is independent of its history, and in which the network is asynchronous.} is optimally 3-round (otherwise, at least one entity is not authenticated since a replay attack is applicable), it is quite interesting to ask whether such a protocol in the password setting (without random oracle) is achievable or not. In this paper, we provide an affirmative answer with an efficient construction in the common reference string (CRS) model. Our protocol is even simpler than that of Katz, {\em et al.} Furthermore, we show that our protocol is secure under the DDH assumption ({\em without} random oracle).
Hybrid Broadcast Encryption and Security Analysis
Guang Gong Shaoquan Jiang
A broadcast encryption scheme for stateless receivers is a data distribution method which never updates users' secret information while in order to maintain the security the system efficiency decreases with the number of revoked users. Another method, a rekeying scheme is a data distribution approach where it revokes illegal users in an {\em explicit} and {\em immediate} way whereas it may cause inconvenience for users. A hybrid approach that appropriately combines these two types of mechanisms seems resulting in a good scheme. In this paper, we suggest such a hybrid framework by proposing a rekeying algorithm for subset cover broadcast encryption framework (for stateless receivers) due to Naor et al. Our rekeying algorithm can simultaneously revoke a number of users. A hybrid approach that appropriately combines these two types of mechanisms seems resulting in a good scheme. In this paper, we suggest such a hybrid framework by proposing a rekeying algorithm for subset cover broadcast encryption framework (for stateless receivers) due to Naor et al. Our rekeying algorithm can simultaneously revoke a number of users. As an important contribution, we formally prove that this hybrid framework has a pre-CCA like security, where in addition to pre-CCA power, the adversary is allowed to {\em adaptively} corrupt and revoke users. Finally, we realize the hybrid framework by two secure concrete schemes that are based on complete subtree method and Asano method, respectively.

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2013
FSE 2012
Asiacrypt 2006