International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Oscar Reparaz

Affiliation: KU Leuven, COSIC

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
TCHES
Consolidating Security Notions in Hardware Masking
In this paper, we revisit the security conditions of masked hardware implementations. We describe a new, succinct, information-theoretic condition called d-glitch immunity which is both necessary and sufficient for security in the presence of glitches. We show that this single condition includes, but is not limited to, previous security notions such as those used in higher-order threshold implementations and in abstractions using ideal gates. As opposed to these previously known necessary conditions, our new condition is also sufficient. On the other hand, it excludes avoidable notions such as uniformity. We also treat the notion of (strong) noninterference from an information-theoretic point-of-view in order to unify the different security concepts and pave the way to the verification of composability in the presence of glitches. We conclude the paper by demonstrating how the condition can be used as an efficient and highly generic flaw detection mechanism for a variety of functions and schemes based on different operations.
2018
CRYPTO
CAPA: The Spirit of Beaver Against Physical Attacks 📺
In this paper we introduce two things: On one hand we introduce the Tile-Probe-and-Fault model, a model generalising the wire-probe model of Ishai et al. extending it to cover both more realistic side-channel leakage scenarios on a chip and also to cover fault and combined attacks. Secondly we introduce CAPA: a combined Countermeasure Against Physical Attacks. Our countermeasure is motivated by our model, and aims to provide security against higher-order SCA, multiple-shot FA and combined attacks. The tile-probe-and-fault model leads one to naturally look (by analogy) at actively secure multi-party computation protocols. Indeed, CAPA draws much inspiration from the MPC protocol SPDZ. So as to demonstrate that the model, and the CAPA countermeasure, are not just theoretical constructions, but could also serve to build practical countermeasures, we present initial experiments of proof-of-concept designs using the CAPA methodology. Namely, a hardware implementation of the KATAN and AES block ciphers, as well as a software bitsliced AES S-box implementation. We demonstrate experimentally that the design can resist second-order DPA attacks, even when the attacker is presented with many hundreds of thousands of traces. In addition our proof-of-concept can also detect faults within our model with high probability in accordance to the methodology.
2018
TCHES
Multiplicative Masking for AES in Hardware
Hardware masked AES designs usually rely on Boolean masking and perform the computation of the S-box using the tower-field decomposition. On the other hand, splitting sensitive variables in a multiplicative way is more amenable for the computation of the AES S-box, as noted by Akkar and Giraud. However, multiplicative masking needs to be implemented carefully not to be vulnerable to first-order DPA with a zero-value power model. Up to now, sound higher-order multiplicative masking schemes have been implemented only in software. In this work, we demonstrate the first hardware implementation of AES using multiplicative masks. The method is tailored to be secure even if the underlying gates are not ideal and glitches occur in the circuit. We detail the design process of first- and second-order secure AES-128 cores, which result in the smallest die area to date among previous state-of-the-art masked AES implementations with comparable randomness cost and latency. The first- and second-order masked implementations improve resp. 29% and 18% over these designs. We deploy our construction on a Spartan-6 FPGA and perform a side-channel evaluation. No leakage is detected with up to 50 million traces for both our first- and second-order implementation. For the latter, this holds both for univariate and bivariate analysis.
2017
CHES
Fast Leakage Assessment
We describe a fast technique for performing the computationally heavy part of leakage assessment, in any statistical moment (or other property) of the leakage samples distributions. The proposed technique outperforms by orders of magnitude the approach presented at CHES 2015 by Schneider and Moradi. We can carry out evaluations that before took 90 CPU-days in 4 CPU-hours (about a 500-fold speed-up). As a bonus, we can work with exact arithmetic, we can apply kernel-based density estimation methods, we can employ arbitrary pre-processing functions such as absolute value to power traces, and we can perform information-theoretic leakage assessment. Our trick is simple and elegant, and lends itself to an easy and compact implementation. We fit a prototype implementation in about 130 lines of C code.
2017
CHES
Four$\mathbb {Q}$ on Embedded Devices with Strong Countermeasures Against Side-Channel Attacks
This work deals with the energy-efficient, high-speed and high-security implementation of elliptic curve scalar multiplication and elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange on embedded devices using Four$$\mathbb {Q}$$ and incorporating strong countermeasures to thwart a wide variety of side-channel attacks. First, we set new speed records for constant-time curve-based scalar multiplication and DH key exchange at the 128-bit security level with implementations targeting 8, 16 and 32-bit microcontrollers. For example, our software computes a static ECDH shared secret in $$\sim $$6.9 million cycles (or 0.86 s @8 MHz) on a low-power 8-bit AVR microcontroller which, compared to the fastest Curve25519 and genus-2 Kummer implementations on the same platform, offers 2$$\times $$ and 1.4$$\times $$ speedups, respectively. Similarly, it computes the same operation in $$\sim $$496 thousand cycles on a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller, achieving a factor-2.9 speedup when compared to the fastest Curve25519 implementation targeting the same platform. Second, we engineer a set of side-channel countermeasures taking advantage of Four$$\mathbb {Q}$$’s rich arithmetic and propose a secure implementation that offers protection against a wide range of sophisticated side-channel attacks. Finally, we perform a differential power analysis evaluation of our software running on an ARM Cortex-M4, and report that no leakage was detected with up to 10 million traces. These results demonstrate the potential of deploying Four$$\mathbb {Q}$$ on low-power applications such as protocols for IoT.
2016
FSE
2016
CHES
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
CRYPTO
2015
CHES
2015
CHES
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2012
CHES