## CryptoDB

### Thomas Johansson

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

TCHES

Don’t Reject This: Key-Recovery Timing Attacks Due to Rejection-Sampling in HQC and BIKE
Abstract

Well before large-scale quantum computers will be available, traditional cryptosystems must be transitioned to post-quantum (PQ) secure schemes. The NIST PQC competition aims to standardize suitable cryptographic schemes. Candidates are evaluated not only on their formal security strengths, but are also judged based on the security with regard to resistance against side-channel attacks. Although round 3 candidates have already been intensively vetted with regard to such attacks, one important attack vector has hitherto been missed: PQ schemes often rely on rejection sampling techniques to obtain pseudorandomness from a specific distribution. In this paper, we reveal that rejection sampling routines that are seeded with secretdependent information and leak timing information result in practical key recovery attacks in the code-based key encapsulation mechanisms HQC and BIKE.Both HQC and BIKE have been selected as alternate candidates in the third round of the NIST competition, which puts them on track for getting standardized separately o the finalists. They have already been specifically hardened with constant-time decoders to avoid side-channel attacks. However, in this paper, we show novel timing vulnerabilities in both schemes: (1) Our secret key recovery attack on HQC requiresonly approx. 866,000 idealized decapsulation timing oracle queries in the 128-bit security setting. It is structurally different from previously identified attacks on the scheme: Previously, exploitable side-channel leakages have been identified in the BCH decoder of a previously submitted HQC version, in the ciphertext check as well as in the pseudorandom function of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation. In contrast, our attack uses the fact that the rejection sampling routine invoked during the deterministic re-encryption of the decapsulation leaks secret-dependent timing information, which can be efficiently exploited to recover the secret key when HQC is instantiated with the (now constant-time) BCH decoder, as well as with the RMRS decoder of the current submission. (2) From the timing information of the constant weight word sampler in the BIKE decapsulation, we demonstrate how to distinguish whether the decoding step is successful or not, and how this distinguisher is then used in the framework of the GJS attack to derive the distance spectrum of the secret key, using 5.8 x 107 idealized timing oracle queries. We provide details and analyses of the fully implemented attacks, as well as a discussion on possible countermeasures and their limits.

2022

TCHES

A Key-Recovery Side-Channel Attack on Classic McEliece Implementations
Abstract

In this paper, we propose the first key-recovery side-channel attack on Classic McEliece, a KEM finalist in the NIST Post-quantum Cryptography Standardization Project. Our novel idea is to design an attack algorithm where we submit special ciphertexts to the decryption oracle that correspond to cases of single errors. Decoding of such ciphertexts involves only a single entry in a large secret permutation, which is part of the secret key. Through an identified leakage in the additive FFT step used to evaluate the error locator polynomial, a single entry of the secret permutation can be determined. Iterating this for other entries leads to full secret key recovery. The attack is described using power analysis both on the FPGA reference implementation and a software implementation running on an ARM Cortex-M4. We use a machine-learning-based classification algorithm to determine the error locator polynomial from a single trace. The attack is fully implemented and evaluated in the Chipwhisperer framework and is successful in practice. For the smallest parameter set, it is using about 300 traces for partial key recovery and less than 800 traces for full key recovery, in the FPGA case. A similar number of traces are required for a successful attack on the ARM software implementation.

2022

TCHES

A Key-Recovery Side-Channel Attack on Classic McEliece Implementations
Abstract

In this paper, we propose the first key-recovery side-channel attack on Classic McEliece, a KEM finalist in the NIST Post-quantum Cryptography Standardization Project. Our novel idea is to design an attack algorithm where we submit special ciphertexts to the decryption oracle that correspond to cases of single errors. Decoding of such ciphertexts involves only a single entry in a large secret permutation, which is part of the secret key. Through an identified leakage in the additive FFT step used to evaluate the error locator polynomial, a single entry of the secret permutation can be determined. Iterating this for other entries leads to full secret key recovery. The attack is described using power analysis both on the FPGA reference implementation and a software implementation running on an ARM Cortex-M4. We use a machine-learning-based classification algorithm to determine the error locator polynomial from a single trace. The attack is fully implemented and evaluated in the Chipwhisperer framework and is successful in practice. For the smallest parameter set, it is using about 300 traces for partial key recovery and less than 800 traces for full key recovery, in the FPGA case. A similar number of traces are required for a successful attack on the ARM software implementation.

2022

TOSC

Attacks on the Firekite Cipher
Abstract

Firekite is a synchronous stream cipher using a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) whose security is conjectured to rely on the hardness of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem. It is one of a few LPN-based symmetric encryption schemes, and it can be very efficiently implemented on a low-end SoC FPGA. The designers, Bogos, Korolija, Locher and Vaudenay, demonstrated appealing properties of Firekite, such as requiring only one source of cryptographically strong bits, small key size, high attainable throughput, and an estimate for the bit level security depending on the selected practical parameters.We propose distinguishing and key-recovery attacks on Firekite by exploiting the structural properties of its PRNG. We adopt several birthday-paradox techniques to show that a particular sum of Firekite’s output has a low Hamming weight with higher probability than the random case. We achieve the best distinguishing attacks with complexities 266.75 and 2106.75 for Firekite’s parameters corresponding to 80-bit and 128-bit security, respectively. By applying the distinguishing attacks and an additional algorithm we describe, one can also recover the secret matrix used in the Firekite PRNG, which is built from the secret key bits. This key recovery attack works on most large instances of Firekite parameters and has slightly larger complexity, for instance, 269.87 on the 80-bit security parameters n = 16,384, m = 216, k = 216.

2021

TCHES

A Side-Channel Attack on a Masked IND-CCA Secure Saber KEM Implementation
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we present a side-channel attack on a first-order masked implementation of IND-CCA secure Saber KEM. We show how to recover both the session key and the long-term secret key from 24 traces using a deep neural network created at the profiling stage. The proposed message recovery approach learns a higher-order model directly, without explicitly extracting random masks at each execution. This eliminates the need for a fully controllable profiling device which is required in previous attacks on masked implementations of LWE/LWR-based PKEs/KEMs. We also present a new secret key recovery approach based on maps from error-correcting codes that can compensate for some errors in the recovered message. In addition, we discovered a previously unknown leakage point in the primitive for masked logical shifting on arithmetic shares.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Faster Dual Lattice Attacks for Solving LWE -- with applications to CRYSTALS
📺
Abstract

Cryptosystems based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem are assigned a security level that relates to the cost of generic algorithms for solving the LWE problem. This includes at least the so-
called primal and dual lattice attacks. In this paper, we present an improvement of the dual lattice attack using an idea that can be traced back to work by Bleichenbacher. We present an improved distinguisher that in combination with a guessing step shows a reduction in the overall complexity for the dual attack on all schemes. Our second contribution is a new two-step lattice reduction strategy that allows the new dual lattice attack to exploit two recent techniques in lattice reduction algorithms, i.e., the "dimensions for free" trick and the trick of producing many short vectors in one sieving. Since the incompatibility of these two tricks was believed to be the main reason that dual attacks are less interesting, our new reduction strategy allows more efficient dual approaches than primal attacks, for important cryptographic parameter sets.
We apply the proposed attacks on CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium, two of the finalists in the NIST post-quantum cryptography project and present new lower complexity numbers, both classically and quantumly in the core-SVP model. Most importantly, for the proposed security parameters, our new dual attack with refined lattice reduction strategy greatly improves the state-of-the-art primal attack in the classical gate-count metric, i.e., the classical Random Access Machine (RAM) model, indicating that some parameters are really on the edge for their claimed security level. Specifically, the improvement factor can be as large as 15 bits for Kyber1024 with an extrapolation model (Albrecht et al. at Eurocrypt 2019). Also, we show that Kyber768 could be solved with classical gate complexity below its claimed security level. Last, we apply the new attack to the proposed parameters in a draft version of Homomorphic Encryption Standard (see https://homomorphicencryption.org) and obtain significant gains. For instance, we could solve a parameter set aiming for 192-bit security in $2^{187.0}$ operations in the classical RAM model. Note that these parameters are deployed in well-known Fully Homomorphic Encryption libraries.

2021

TOSC

Improved guess-and-determine and distinguishing attacks on SNOW-V
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the security of SNOW-V, demonstrating two guess-and-determine (GnD) attacks against the full version with complexities 2384 and 2378, respectively, and one distinguishing attack against a reduced variant with complexity 2303. Our GnD attacks use enumeration with recursion to explore valid guessing paths, and try to truncate as many invalid guessing paths as possible at early stages of the recursion by carefully designing the order of guessing. In our first GnD attack, we guess three 128-bit state variables, determine the remaining four according to four consecutive keystream words. We finally use the next three keystream words to verify the correct guess. The second GnD attack is similar but exploits one more keystream word as side information helping to truncate more guessing paths. Our distinguishing attack targets a reduced variant where 32-bit adders are replaced with exclusive-OR operations. The samples can be collected from short keystream sequences under different (key, IV) pairs. These attacks do not threaten SNOW-V, but provide more in-depth details for understanding its security and give new ideas for cryptanalysis of other ciphers.

2020

JOFC

Solving LPN Using Covering Codes
Abstract

We present a new algorithm for solving the LPN problem. The algorithm has a similar form as some previous methods, but includes a new key step that makes use of approximations of random words to a nearest codeword in a linear code. It outperforms previous methods for many parameter choices. In particular, we can now solve the $$(512,\frac{1}{8})$$ ( 512 , 1 8 ) LPN instance with complexity less than $$2^{80}$$ 2 80 operations in expectation, indicating that cryptographic schemes like HB variants and LPN-C should increase their parameter size for 80-bit security.

2020

TOSC

Spectral analysis of ZUC-256
📺
Abstract

In this paper we develop a number of generic techniques and algorithms in spectral analysis of large linear approximations for use in cryptanalysis. We apply the developed tools for cryptanalysis of ZUC-256 and give a distinguishing attack with complexity around 2236. Although the attack is only 220 times faster than exhaustive key search, the result indicates that ZUC-256 does not provide a source with full 256-bit entropy in the generated keystream, which would be expected from a 256-bit key. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known academic attack on full ZUC-256 with a computational complexity that is below exhaustive key search.

2020

TOSC

Vectorized linear approximations for attacks on SNOW 3G
📺
Abstract

SNOW 3G is a stream cipher designed in 2006 by ETSI/SAGE, serving in 3GPP as one of the standard algorithms for data confidentiality and integrity protection. It is also included in the 4G LTE standard. In this paper we derive vectorized linear approximations of the finite state machine in SNOW3G. In particular,we show one 24-bit approximation with a bias around 2−37 and one byte-oriented approximation with a bias around 2−40. We then use the approximations to launch attacks on SNOW 3G. The first approximation is used in a distinguishing attack resulting in an expected complexity of 2172 and the second one can be used in a standard fast correlation attack resulting in key recovery in an expected complexity of 2177. If the key length in SNOW 3G would be increased to 256 bits, the results show that there are then academic attacks on such a version faster than the exhaustive key search.

2020

CRYPTO

A key-recovery timing attack on post-quantum primitives using the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation and its application on FrodoKEM
📺
Abstract

In the implementation of post-quantum primitives, it is well known that all computations that handle secret information need to be implemented to run in constant time. Using the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation or any of its different variants, a CPA-secure primitive can be converted into an IND-CCA secure KEM. In this paper we show that although the transformation does not handle secret information apart from calls to the CPA-secure primitive, it has to be implemented in constant time. Namely, if the ciphertext comparison step in the transformation is leaking side-channel information, we can launch a key-recovery attack.
Several proposed schemes in round 2 of the NIST post-quantum standardization project are susceptible to the proposed attack and we develop and show the details of the attack on one of them, being FrodoKEM. It is implemented on the reference implementation of FrodoKEM, which is claimed to be secure against all timing attacks. In the experiments, the attack code is able to extract the secret key for all security levels using about $2^{30}$ decapsulation calls.

2020

ASIACRYPT

A New Decryption Failure Attack against HQC
📺
Abstract

HQC is an IND-CCA2 KEM running for standardization in NIST's post-quantum cryptography project and has advanced to the second round. It is a code-based scheme in the class of public key encryptions, with given sets of parameters spanning NIST security strength 1, 3 and 5, corresponding to 128, 192 and 256 bits of classic security.
In this paper we present an attack recovering the secret key of an HQC instance named hqc-256-1. The attack requires a single precomputation performed once and then never again. The online attack on an HQC instance then submits about $2^{64}$ special ciphertexts for decryption (obtained from the precomputation) and a phase of analysis studies the subset of ciphertexts that are not correctly decrypted. In this phase, the secret key of the HQC instance is determined.
The overall complexity is estimated to be \(2^{246}\) if the attacker balances the costs of precomputation and post-processing, thereby claiming a successful attack on hqc-256-1 in the NIST setting. If we allow the precomputation cost to be $2^{254}$, which is below exhaustive key search on a 256 bit secret key,
the computational complexity of the later parts can be no more than $2^{64}$. This is a setting relevant to practical security since the large precomputation needs to be done only once.
Also, we note that the complexity of the precomputation can be lower if the online attack is allowed to submit more than $2^{64}$ ciphertexts for decryption.

2019

TCHES

Error Amplification in Code-based Cryptography
📺
Abstract

Code-based cryptography is one of the main techniques enabling cryptographic primitives in a post-quantum scenario. In particular, the MDPC scheme is a basic scheme from which many other schemes have been derived. These schemes rely on iterative decoding in the decryption process and thus have a certain small probability p of having a decryption (decoding) error.In this paper we show a very fundamental and important property of code-based encryption schemes. Given one initial error pattern that fails to decode, the time needed to generate another message that fails to decode is strictly much less than 1/p. We show this by developing a method for fast generation of undecodable error patterns (error pattern chaining), which additionally proves that a measure of closeness in ciphertext space can be exploited through its strong linkage to the difficulty of decoding these messages. Furthermore, if side-channel information is also available (time to decode), then the initial error pattern no longer needs to be given since one can be easily generated in this case.These observations are fundamentally important because they show that a, say, 128- bit encryption scheme is not inherently safe from reaction attacks even if it employs a decoder with a failure rate of 2−128. In fact, unless explicit protective measures are taken, having a failure rate at all – of any magnitude – can pose a security problem because of the error amplification effect of our method.A key-recovery reaction attack was recently shown on the MDPC scheme as well as similar schemes, taking advantage of decoding errors in order to recover the secret key. It was also shown that knowing the number of iterations in the iterative decoding step, which could be received in a timing attack, would also enable and enhance such an attack. In this paper we apply our error pattern chaining method to show how to improve the performance of such reaction attacks in the CPA case. We show that after identifying a single decoding error (or a decoding step taking more time than expected in a timing attack), we can adaptively create new error patterns that have a much higher decoding error probability than for a random error. This leads to a significant improvement of the attack based on decoding errors in the CPA case and it also gives the strongest known attack on MDPC-like schemes, both with and without using side-channel information.

2019

PKC

Decryption Failure Attacks on IND-CCA Secure Lattice-Based Schemes
Abstract

In this paper we investigate the impact of decryption failures on the chosen-ciphertext security of lattice-based primitives. We discuss a generic framework for secret key recovery based on decryption failures and present an attack on the NIST Post-Quantum Proposal ss-ntru-pke. Our framework is split in three parts: First, we use a technique to increase the failure rate of lattice-based schemes called failure boosting. Based on this technique we investigate the minimal effort for an adversary to obtain a failure in three cases: when he has access to a quantum computer, when he mounts a multi-target attack or when he can only perform a limited number of oracle queries. Secondly, we examine the amount of information that an adversary can derive from failing ciphertexts. Finally, these techniques are combined in an overall analysis of the security of lattice based schemes under a decryption failure attack. We show that an attacker could significantly reduce the security of lattice based schemes that have a relatively high failure rate. However, for most of the NIST Post-Quantum Proposals, the number of required oracle queries is above practical limits. Furthermore, a new generic weak-key (multi-target) model on lattice-based schemes, which can be viewed as a variant of the previous framework, is proposed. This model further takes into consideration the weak-key phenomenon that a small fraction of keys can have much larger decoding error probability for ciphertexts with certain key-related properties. We apply this model and present an attack in detail on the NIST Post-Quantum Proposal – ss-ntru-pke – with complexity below the claimed security level.

2019

TOSC

A new SNOW stream cipher called SNOW-V
📺
Abstract

In this paper we are proposing a new member in the SNOW family of stream ciphers, called SNOW-V. The motivation is to meet an industry demand of very high speed encryption in a virtualized environment, something that can be expected to be relevant in a future 5G mobile communication system. We are revising the SNOW 3G architecture to be competitive in such a pure software environment, making use of both existing acceleration instructions for the AES encryption round function as well as the ability of modern CPUs to handle large vectors of integers (e.g. SIMD instructions). We have kept the general design from SNOW 3G, in terms of linear feedback shift register (LFSR) and Finite State Machine (FSM), but both entities are updated to better align with vectorized implementations. The LFSR part is new and operates 8 times the speed of the FSM. We have furthermore increased the total state size by using 128-bit registers in the FSM, we use the full AES encryption round function in the FSM update, and, finally, the initialization phase includes a masking with key bits at its end. The result is an algorithm generally much faster than AES-256 and with expected security not worse than AES-256.

2019

ASIACRYPT

A Novel CCA Attack Using Decryption Errors Against LAC
Abstract

Cryptosystems based on Learning with Errors or related problems are central topics in recent cryptographic research. One main witness to this is the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization effort. Many submitted proposals rely on problems related to Learning with Errors. Such schemes often include the possibility of decryption errors with some very small probability. Some of them have a somewhat larger error probability in each coordinate, but use an error correcting code to get rid of errors. In this paper we propose and discuss an attack for secret key recovery based on generating decryption errors, for schemes using error correcting codes. In particular we show an attack on the scheme LAC, a proposal to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization that has advanced to round 2.In a standard setting with CCA security, the attack first consists of a precomputation of special messages and their corresponding error vectors. This set of messages are submitted for decryption and a few decryption errors are observed. In a statistical analysis step, these vectors causing the decryption errors are processed and the result reveals the secret key. The attack only works for a fraction of the secret keys. To be specific, regarding LAC256, the version for achieving the 256-bit classical security level, we recover one key among approximately $$2^{64}$$ public keys with complexity $$2^{79}$$, if the precomputation cost of $$2^{162}$$ is excluded. We also show the possibility to attack a more probable key (say with probability $$2^{-16}$$). This attack is verified via extensive simulation.We further apply this attack to LAC256-v2, a new version of LAC256 in round 2 of the NIST PQ-project and obtain a multi-target attack with slightly increased precomputation complexity (from $$2^{162}$$ to $$2^{171}$$). One can also explain this attack in the single-key setting as an attack with precomputation complexity of $$2^{171}$$ and success probability of $$2^{-64}$$.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2015
- Eurocrypt 2013 (Program chair)
- Eurocrypt 2012 (Program chair)
- Asiacrypt 2010
- FSE 2010
- Asiacrypt 2009
- Eurocrypt 2009
- FSE 2008
- Crypto 2008
- Asiacrypt 2007
- FSE 2007
- FSE 2006
- Asiacrypt 2005
- FSE 2005
- Eurocrypt 2004
- FSE 2004
- FSE 2003 (Program chair)
- FSE 2002
- Eurocrypt 2002
- FSE 2001
- Eurocrypt 2001
- Eurocrypt 2000
- Eurocrypt 1998

#### Coauthors

- Jürgen Bierbrauer (1)
- Vladimor V. Chepyzhov (1)
- Elena Dubrova (1)
- Jan-Pieter D’Anvers (1)
- Patrik Ekdahl (3)
- Håkan Englund (3)
- Qian Guo (14)
- Martin Hell (8)
- Tor Helleseth (1)
- Clemens Hlauschek (1)
- Andreas Johansson (2)
- Fredrik Jönsson (3)
- Gregory Kabatianskii (2)
- Kaoru Kurosawa (2)
- Norman Lahr (1)
- Carl Löndahl (2)
- Erik Mårtensson (1)
- Alexander Maximov (5)
- Willi Meier (3)
- Frédéric Muller (1)
- Kalle Ngo (1)
- Vu Nguyen (1)
- Alexander Nilsson (4)
- Robin Leander Schröder (1)
- Ben J. M. Smeets (4)
- Paul Stankovski (6)
- Douglas R. Stinson (2)
- Ingrid Verbauwhede (1)
- Frederik Vercauteren (1)
- Jing Yang (5)