International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Khoongming Khoo

Affiliation: DSO National Laboratories

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2017
TOSC
Human-readable Proof of the Related-Key Security of AES-128
The related-key model is now considered an important scenario for block cipher security and many schemes were broken in this model, even AES-192 and AES-256. Recently were introduced efficient computer-based search tools that can produce the best possible related-key truncated differential paths for AES. However, one has to trust the implementation of these tools and they do not provide any meaningful information on how to design a good key schedule, which remains a challenge for the community as of today. We provide in this article the first human-readable proof on the minimal number of active Sboxes in the related-key model for AES-128, without any help from a computer. More precisely, we show that any related-key differential path for AES-128 will respectively contain at least 0, 1, 3 and 9 active Sboxes for 1, 2, 3 and 4 rounds. Our proof is tight, not trivial, and actually exhibits for the first time the interplay between the key state and the internal state of an AES-like block cipher with an AES-like key schedule. As application example, we leverage our proofs to propose a new key schedule, that is not only faster (a simple permutation on the byte positions) but also ensures a higher number of active Sboxes than AES-128’s key schedule. We believe this is an important step towards a good understanding of efficient and secure key schedule designs.
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2014
EPRINT
2014
CHES
2011
JOFC
2010
EPRINT
Parallelizing the Camellia and SMS4 Block Ciphers - Extended version
Huihui Yap Khoongming Khoo Axel Poschmann
The n-cell GF-NLFSR (Generalized Feistel-NonLinear Feedback Shift Register) structure [8] is a generalized unbalanced Feistel network that can be considered as a generalization of the outer function FO of the KASUMI block cipher. An advantage of this cipher over other n-cell generalized Feistel networks, e.g. SMS4 [11] and Camellia [5], is that it is parallelizable for up to n rounds. In hardware implementations, the benefits translate to speeding up encryption by up to n times while consuming similar area and significantly less power. At the same time n-cell GF-NLFSR structures offer similar proofs of security against differential cryptanalysis as conventional n-cell Feistel structures. We also ensure that parallelized versions of Camellia and SMS4 are resistant against other block cipher attacks such as linear, boomerang, integral, impossible differential, higher order differential,interpolation, slide, XSL and related-key differential attacks.
2009
EPRINT
Applying Time-Memory-Data Trade-Off to Meet-in-the-Middle Attack
Jiali Choy Khoongming Khoo Chuan-Wen Loe
In this paper, we present several new attacks on multiple encryption block ciphers based on the meet-in-the-middle attack. In the first attack (GDD-MTM), we guess a certain number of secret key bits and apply the meet-in-the-middle attack on multiple ciphertexts. The second attack (TMTO-MTM) is derived from applying the time-memory trade-off attack to the meet-in-the-middle attack on a single ciphertext. We may also use rainbow chains in the table construction to get the Rainbow-MTM attack. The fourth attack (BS-MTM) is defined by combining the time-memory-data trade-off attack proposed by Biryukov and Shamir to the meet-in-the-middle attack on multiple ciphertexts. Lastly, for the final attack (TMD-MTM), we apply the TMTO-Data curve, which demonstrates the general methodology for multiple data trade-offs, to the meet-in-the-middle attack. GDD-MTM requires no pre-processing, but the attack complexity is high while memory requirement is low. In the last four attacks, pre-processing is required but we can achieve lower (faster) online attack complexity at the expense of more memory in comparison with the GDD-MTM attack. To illustrate how the attacks may be used, we applied them in the cryptanalysis of triple DES. In particular, for the BS-MTM attack, we managed to achieve pre-computation and data complexity which are much lower while maintaining almost the same memory and online attack complexity, as compared to a time-memory-data trade-off attack by Biryukov et al. at SAC 2005. In all, our new methodologies offer viable alternatives and provide more flexibility in achieving time-memory-data trade-offs.
2009
EPRINT
Extensions of the Cube Attack
Aileen Zhang Chu-Wee Lim Khoongming Khoo
At Crypto 2008, Shamir introduced a new algebraic attack called the cube attack, which allows us to solve black-box polynomials if we are able to tweak the inputs by varying an initialization vector. We offer a few extensions of this attack by applying it to Boolean functions for which we can find low-degree multiples. We then extend this to vectorial Boolean functions by finding relations with low-degree polynomials.
2008
EPRINT
New Applications of Differential Bounds of the SDS Structure
Jiali Choy Khoongming Khoo
In this paper, we present some new applications of the bounds for the differential probability of a SDS (Substitution-Diffusion-Substitution) structure by Park et al. at FSE 2003. Park et al. have applied their result on the AES cipher which uses the SDS structure based on MDS matrices. We shall apply their result to practical ciphers that use SDS structures based on {0,1}-matrices of size n times n. These structures are useful because they can be efficiently implemented in hardware. We prove a bound on {0,1}-matrices to show that they cannot be MDS and are almost-MDS only when n=2,3 or 4. Thus we have to apply Park's result whenever {0,1}-matrices where $n \geq 5$ are used because previous results only hold for MDS and almost-MDS diffusion matrices. Based on our bound, we also show that the {0,1}-matrix used in E2 is almost-optimal among {0,1}-matrices. Using Park's result, we prove differential bounds for E2 and an MCrypton-like cipher, from which we can deduce their security against boomerang attack and some of its variants. At ICCSA 2006, Khoo and Heng constructed block cipher-based universal hash functions, from which they derived Message Authentication Codes (MACs) which are faster than CBC-MAC. Park's result provides us with the means to obtain a more accurate bound for their universal hash function. With this bound, we can restrict the number of MAC's performed before a change of MAC key is needed.
2007
FSE
2007
FSE
2007
EPRINT
On an Improved Correlation Analysis of Stream Ciphers Using Muti-Output Boolean Functions and the Related Generalized Notion of Nonlinearity
We investigate the security of $n$-bit to $m$-bit vectorial Boolean functions in stream ciphers. Such stream ciphers have higher throughput than those using single-bit output Boolean functions. However, as shown by Zhang and Chan at Crypto 2000, linear approximations based on composing the vector output with any Boolean functions have higher bias than those based on the usual correlation attack. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for analyzing vector Boolean functions called generalized correlation analysis. It is based on approximate equations which are linear in the input $x$ but of free degree in the output $z=F(x)$. The complexity for computing the generalized nonlinearity for this new attack is reduced from $2^{2^m \times n+n}$ to $2^{2n}$. Based on experimental results, we show that the new generalized correlation attack gives linear approximation with much higher bias than the Zhang-Chan and usual correlation attack. We confirm this with a theoretical upper bound for generalized nonlinearity, which is much lower than for the unrestricted nonlinearity (for Zhang-Chan's attack) and {\em a fortiori} for usual nonlinearity. We also prove a lower bound for generalized nonlinearity which allows us to construct vector Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity from bent and almost bent functions. We derive the generalized nonlinearity of some known secondary constructions for secure vector Boolean functions. Finally, we prove that if a vector Boolean function has high nonlinearity or even a high unrestricted nonlinearity, it cannot ensure that it will have high generalized nonlinearity.
2007
EPRINT
Time-Memory-Data Trade-off Attack on Stream Ciphers based on Maiorana-McFarland Functions
In this paper, we present the time-memory-data (TMD) trade-off attack on stream ciphers filtered by Maiorana-McFarland functions. This can be considered as a generalization of the time-memory-data trade-off attack of Mihaljevic and Imai on Toyocrypt. First, we substitute the filter function in Toyocrypt (which has the same size as the LFSR) with a general Maiorana-McFarland function. This allows us to apply the attack to a wider class of stream ciphers. Second, we highlight how the choice of different Maiorana-McFarland functions can affect the effectiveness of our attack. Third, we show that the attack can be modified to apply on filter functions which are smaller than the LFSR and on filter-combiner stream ciphers. This allows us to cryptanalyze other configurations commonly found in practice. Finally, filter functions with vector output are sometimes used in stream ciphers to improve the throughput. Therefore the case when the Maiorana-McFarland functions have vector output is investigated. We found that the extra speed comes at the price of additional weaknesses which make the attacks easier.