Affiliation: Software School, Fudan University
Adaptive Concurrent Non-Malleability with Bare Public-Keys
Concurrent non-malleability (CNM) is central for cryptographic protocols running concurrently in environments such as the Internet. In this work, we formulate CNM in the bare public-key (BPK) model, and show that round-e±cient concurrent non-malleable cryptography with full adaptive input selection can be established, in general, with bare public-keys (where, in particular, no trusted assumption is made).
On the Security of a Bidirectional Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme from PKC 2010
In PKC 2010, Matsuda, Nishimaki and Tanaka proposed a bidirectional proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme without bilinear maps, and claimed that their scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure in the standard model. However, by giving a concrete attack, in this paper we indicate that their PRE scheme fails to achieve the chosen-ciphertext security. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the fact that, it is still an open problem to come up with a chosen-ciphertext secure PRE scheme without bilinear maps in the standard model.
A New Framework for RFID Privacy
Formal RFID security and privacy frameworks are fundamental to the design and analysis of robust RFID systems. In this paper, we develop a new definitional framework for RFID privacy in a rigorous and precise manner. Our framework is based on a zero-knowledge (ZK) formulation [7, 5] and incorporates the notions of adaptive completeness and mutual authentication. We provide meticulous justification of the new framework and contrast it with existing ones in the literature. In particular, we prove that our framework is stronger than the ind-privacy model of , which answers an open question posed in  for developing stronger RFID privacy models. Along the way we also try to clarify certain confusions and rectify several defects in the existing frameworks. Based on the protocol of , we propose an efficient RFID mutual authentication protocol and analyze its security and privacy. The methodology used in our analysis is of independent interest and can be applied to analyze other RFID protocols within the new framework.
Concurrent Knowledge Extraction in the Public-Key Model
Knowledge extraction is a fundamental notion, modeling machine possession of values (witnesses) in a computational complexity sense and enabling one to argue about the internal state of a party in a protocol without probing its internal secret state. However, when transactions are concurrent (e.g., over the Internet) with players possessing public-keys (as is common in cryptography), assuring that entities ``know" what they claim to know, where adversaries may be well coordinated across different transactions, turns out to be much more subtle and in need of re-examination. Here, we investigate how to formally treat knowledge possession by parties (with registered public-keys) interacting over the Internet. Stated more technically, we look into the relative power of the notion of ``concurrent knowledge-extraction" (CKE) in the concurrent zero-knowledge (CZK) bare public-key (BPK) model where statements being proven can be dynamically and adaptively chosen by the prover. We show the potential vulnerability of man-in-the-middle (MIM) attacks turn out to be a real security threat to existing natural protocols running concurrently in the public-key model, which motivates us to introduce and formalize the notion of CKE, alone with clarification of various subtleties. Then, both generic (based on standard polynomial assumptions), and efficient (employing complexity leveraging in a novel way) implementations for NP are presented for constant-round (in particular, round-optimal) concurrently knowledge-extractable concurrent zero-knowledge (CZK-CKE) arguments in the BPK model. The efficient implementation can be further practically instantiated for specific number-theoretic language.
Deniable Internet Key-Exchange
In this work, we develop a family of protocols for deniable Internet Key-Exchange (IKE) with the following properties: 1. item Highly practical efficiency, and conceptual simplicity and clarity. 2. Forward and concurrent (non-malleable) deniability against adversaries with arbitrary auxiliary inputs, and better privacy protection of players' roles. 3. Provable security in the Canetti-Krawczyk post-specified-peer model, and maintenance of essential security properties not captured by the Canetti-Krawczyk security model. 4. Compatibility with the widely deployed and standardized SIGMA (i.e., the basis of IKEv2) and (H)MQV protocols, when parties possess DL public-keys. Our protocols could potentially serve, in part, as either the underlying basis or a useful alternative for the next generation of IKE (i.e., IKEv3) of IPsec (in particular, when deniability is desired). In view of the wide deployment and use of IKE and increasing awareness of privacy protection (especially for E-commerce over Internet), this work is naturally of practical interest.
Concurrent/Resettable Zero-Knowledge With Concurrent Soundness in the Bare Public-Key Model and Its Applications
In this work, we investigate concurrent knowledge-extraction (CKE) and concurrent non-malleability (CNM) for concurrent (and stronger, resettable) ZK protocols in the bare public-key model. We formulate, driven by concrete attacks, and achieve CKE for constant-round concurrent/resettable arguments in the BPK model under standard polynomial assumptions. We get both generic and practical implementations. Here, CKE is a new concurrent verifier security that is strictly stronger than concurrent soundness in public-key model. We investigate, driven by concrete attacks, and clarify the subtleties in formulating CNM in the public-key model. We then give a new (augmented) CNM formulation in the public-key model and a construction of CNMZK in the public-key model satisfying the new CNM formulation.
New Notions of Soundness and Simultaneous Resettability in the Public-Key Model
I n this paper, some new notions of soundness in public-key model are presented. We clarify the relationships among our new notions of soundness and the original 4 soundness notions presented by Micali and Reyzin. Our new soundness notions also characterize a new model for ZK protocols in public key model: weak soundness model. By ``weak? we mean for each common input x selected by a malicious prover on the fly, x is used by the malicious prover at most a-priori bounded polynomial times. The weak soundness model just lies in between BPK model and UPK model. Namely, it is weaker than BPK model but stronger than UPK model. In the weak soundness model (also in the UPK model, since weak soundness model implies UPK model), we get a 3-round black-box rZK arguments with weak resettable soundness for NP. Note that simultaneous resettability is an important open problem in the field of ZK protocols. And Reyzin has proven that there are no ZK protocols with resettable soundness in the BPK model. It means that to achieve simultaneous resettability one needs to augment the BPK model in a reasonable fashion. Although Barak et al. [BGGL01] have proven that any language which has a black-box ZK arguments with resettable soundness is in BPP. It is the weak soundness that makes us to get simultaneous resettability. More interestingly, our protocols work in a somewhat ``parallel repetition? manner to reduce the error probability and the verifier indeed has secret information with respect to historical transcripts. Note that in general the error probability of such protocols can not be reduced by parallel repetition. [BIN97] At last, we give a 3-round non-black-box rZK arguments system with resettable soundness for NP in the preprocessing model in which a trusted third party is assumed. Our construction for such protocol is quite simple. Note that although the preprocessing model is quite imposing but it is still quite reasonable as indicated in [CGGM00]. For example, in many e-commerce setting a trusted third party is often assumed. The critical tools used in this paper are: verifiable pseudorandom functions, zap and complexity leveraging. To our knowledge, our protocols are also the second application of verifiable pseudorandom functions. The first application is the 3-round rZK arguments with one-time soundness for NP in the public-key model as indicated by Micali and Reyzin [MR01a].