International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yao-Ching Hsieh


A General Framework for Lattice-Based ABE Using Evasive Inner-Product Functional Encryption
Yao-Ching Hsieh Huijia Lin Ji Luo
We present a general framework for constructing attribute-based encryption (ABE) schemes for arbitrary function class based on lattices from two ingredients, i) a noisy linear secret sharing scheme for the class and ii) a new type of inner-product functional encryption (IPFE) scheme, termed *evasive* IPFE, which we introduce in this work. We propose lattice-based evasive IPFE schemes and establish their security under simple conditions based on variants of evasive learning with errors (LWE) assumption recently proposed by Wee [EUROCRYPT '22] and Tsabary [CRYPTO '22]. Our general framework is modular and conceptually simple, reducing the task of constructing ABE to that of constructing noisy linear secret sharing schemes, a more lightweight primitive. The versatility of our framework is demonstrated by three new ABE schemes based on variants of the evasive LWE assumption. - We obtain two ciphertext-policy ABE schemes for all polynomial-size circuits with a predetermined depth bound. One of these schemes has *succinct* ciphertexts and secret keys, of size polynomial in the depth bound, rather than the circuit size. This eliminates the need for tensor LWE, another new assumption, from the previous state-of-the-art construction by Wee [EUROCRYPT '22]. - We develop ciphertext-policy and key-policy ABE schemes for deterministic finite automata (DFA) and logspace Turing machines (L). They are the first lattice-based public-key ABE schemes supporting uniform models of computation. Previous lattice-based schemes for uniform computation were limited to the secret-key setting or offered only weaker security against bounded collusion. Lastly, the new primitive of evasive IPFE serves as the lattice-based counterpart of pairing-based IPFE, enabling the application of techniques developed in pairing-based ABE constructions to lattice-based constructions. We believe it is of independent interest and may find other applications.
On the (Im)possibility of Time-Lock Puzzles in the Quantum Random Oracle Model
Time-lock puzzles wrap a solution s inside a puzzle P in such a way that “solving” P to find s requires significantly more time than generating the pair (s, P), even if the adversary has access to parallel computing; hence it can be thought of as sending a message s to the future. It is known [Mahmoody, Moran, Vadhan, Crypto’11] that when the source of hardness is only a random oracle, then any puzzle generator with n queries can be (efficiently) broken by an adversary in O(n) rounds of queries to the oracle. In this work, we revisit time-lock puzzles in a quantum world by allowing the parties to use quantum computing and, in particular, access the random oracle in quantum superposition. An interesting setting is when the puzzle generator is efficient and classical, while the solver (who might be an entity developed in the future) is quantum-powered and is supposed to need a long sequential time to succeed. We prove that in this setting there is no construction of time-lock puzzles solely from quantum (accessible) random oracles. In particular, for any n-query classical puzzle generator, our attack only asks O(n) (also classical) queries to the random oracle, even though it does indeed run in quantum polynomial time if the honest puzzle solver needs quantum computing. Assuming perfect completeness, we also show how to make the above attack run in exactly n rounds while asking a total of m · n queries where m is the query complexity of the puzzle solver. This is indeed tight in the round complexity, as we also prove that a classical puzzle scheme of Mahmoody et al. is also secure against quantum solvers who ask n−1 rounds of queries. In fact, even for the fully classical case, our attack quantitatively improves the total queries of the attack of Mahmoody et al. for the case of perfect completeness from O(mn log n) to mn. Finally, assuming perfect completeness, we present an attack in the “dual” setting in which the puzzle generator is quantum while the solver is classical. We then ask whether one can extend our classical-query attack to the fully quantum setting, in which both the puzzle generator and the solver could be quantum. We show a barrier for proving such results unconditionally. In particular, we show that if the folklore simulation conjecture, first formally stated by Aaronson and Ambainis [arXiv’2009] is false, then there is indeed a time-lock puzzle in the quantum random oracle model that cannot be broken by classical adversaries. This result improves the previous barrier of Austrin et. al [Crypto’22] about key agreements (that can have interactions in both directions) to time-lock puzzles (that only include unidirectional communication).