International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Rentaro Shiba


Areion: Highly-Efficient Permutations and Its Applications to Hash Functions for Short Input
In the real-world applications, the overwhelming majority of cases require hashing with relatively short input, say up to 2K bytes. The length of almost all TCP/IP packets is between 40 to 1.5K bytes, and the maximum packet lengths of major protocols, e.g., Zigbee, Bluetooth low energy, and Controller Area Network (CAN) are less than 128 bytes. However, existing schemes are not well optimized for short input. To bridge the gap between real-world needs (in future) and limited performances of state-of-the-art hash functions for short input, we design a family of wide-block permutations Areion that fully leverages the power of AES instructions, which are widely deployed in many devices. As its applications, we propose several hash functions. Areion significantly outperforms existing schemes for short input and even competitive to relatively long message. Indeed, our hash function is surprisingly fast, and its performance is less than 3 cycles/byte in the latest Intel architecture for any message size. Especially, it is about 10 times faster than existing state-of-the-art schemes for short message up to around 100 bytes, which are most widely-used input size in real-world applications, on both the latest CPU architectures (IceLake, Tiger Lake, and Alder Lake) and mobile platforms (Pixel 6 and iPhone 13).