International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Jeongeun Park


Towards Practical Transciphering for FHE with Setup Independent of the Plaintext Space
<p> Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a powerful tool to achieve non-interactive privacy preserving protocols with optimal computation/communication complexity. However, the main disadvantage is that the actual communication cost (bandwidth) is high due to the large size of FHE ciphertexts. As a solution, a technique called transciphering (also known as Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption) was introduced to achieve almost optimal bandwidth for such protocols. However, all existing works require clients to fix a precision for the messages or a mathematical structure for the message space beforehand. It results in unwanted constraints on the plaintext size or underlying structure of FHE based applications.</p><p> In this article, we introduce a new approach for transciphering which does not require fixed message precision decided by the client, for the first time. In more detail, a client uses any kind of FHE-friendly symmetric cipher for $\{0,1\}$ to send its input data encrypted bit-by-bit, then the server can choose a precision $p$ depending on the application and homomorphically transforms the encrypted bits into FHE ciphertexts encrypting integers in $\mathbb{Z}_p$. To illustrate our new technique, we evaluate a transciphering using FiLIP cipher and adapt the most practical homomorphic evaluation technique [CCS'22] to keep the practical latency. As a result, our proof-of-concept implementation for $p$ from $2^2$ to $2^8$ takes only from $13$ ms to $137$ ms. </p>
FINAL: Faster FHE instantiated with NTRU and LWE 📺
The NTRU problem is a promising candidate to build efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE).However, all the existing proposals (e.g. LTV, YASHE) need so-called `overstretched' parameters of NTRU to enable homomorphic operations. It was shown by Albrecht~et~al. (CRYPTO~2016) that these parameters are vulnerable against subfield lattice attacks. Based on a recent, more detailed analysis of the overstretched NTRU assumption by Ducas and van Woerden (ASIACRYPT~2021), we construct two FHE schemes whose NTRU parameters lie outside the overstretched range.The first scheme is based solely on NTRU and demonstrates competitive performance against the state-of-the-art FHE schemes including TFHE. Our second scheme, which is based on both the NTRU and LWE assumptions, outperforms TFHE with a 28\% faster bootstrapping and 45\% smaller bootstrapping and key-switching keys.