International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Dongxi Liu


Loquat: A SNARK-Friendly Post-Quantum Signature based on the Legendre PRF with Applications in Ring and Aggregate Signatures
We design and implement a novel post-quantum signature scheme based on the Legendre PRF, named Loquat. Prior to this work, efficient approaches for constructing post-quantum signatures with comparable security assumptions mainly used the MPC-in-the-head paradigm or hash trees. Our method departs from these paradigms and, notably, is SNARK-friendly, a feature not commonly found in earlier designs. Loquat requires significantly fewer computational operations for verification than other symmetric-key-based post-quantum signature schemes that support stateless signing. Our Python implementation of Loquat demonstrate a signature size of 46KB, with a signing time of 5.04 seconds and a verification time of 0.21 seconds. Instantiating the random oracle with an algebraic hash function results in the R1CS constraints for signature verification being about 148K, 7 to 175 times smaller than those required for MPC-in-the-head-based signatures and 3 to 9 times less than those for SPHINCS+ [Bernstein et al. CCS’19]. We explore two applications of Loquat. First, we incorporate it into the ID-based ring signature scheme [Buser et al. ACNS’22], achieving a significant reduction in signature size from 1.9 MB to 0.9 MB with stateless signing and practical master key generation. Our second application presents a SNARK-based aggregate signature scheme. We use the implementations of Aurora [Ben-Sasson et al. EC’19] and Fractal [Chiesa et al. EC’20] to benchmark our aggregate signature’s performance. Our findings show that aggregating 32 Loquat signatures using Aurora results in a proving time of about 7 minutes, a verification time of 66 seconds, and an aggregate signature size of 197 KB. Furthermore, by leveraging the recursive proof composition feature of Fractal, we achieve an aggregate signature with a constant size of 145 KB, illustrating Loquat’s potential for scalability in cryptographic applications.
Efficient Hybrid Exact/Relaxed Lattice Proofs and Applications to Rounding and VRFs
In this work, we study hybrid exact/relaxed zero-knowledge proofs from lattices, where the proved relation is exact in one part and relaxed in the other. Such proofs arise in important real-life applications such as those requiring verifiable PRF evaluation and have so far not received significant attention as a standalone problem. We first introduce a general framework, LANES+, for realizing such hybrid proofs efficiently by combining standard relaxed proofs of knowledge RPoK and the LANES framework (due to a series of works in Crypto'20, Asiacrypt'20, ACM CCS'20). The latter framework is a powerful lattice-based proof system that can prove exact linear and multiplicative relations. The advantage of LANES+ is its ability to realize hybrid proofs more efficiently by exploiting RPoK for the high-dimensional part of the secret witness while leaving a low-dimensional secret witness part for the exact proof that is proven at a significantly lower cost via LANES. Thanks to the flexibility of LANES+, other exact proof systems can also be supported. We apply our LANES+ framework to construct substantially shorter proofs of rounding, which is a central tool for verifiable deterministic lattice-based cryptography. Based on our rounding proof, we then design an efficient long-term verifiable random function (VRF), named LaV. LaV leads to the shortest VRF outputs among the proposals of standard (i.e., long-term and stateless) VRFs based on quantum-safe assumptions. Of independent interest, we also present generalized results for challenge difference invertibility, a fundamental soundness security requirement for many proof systems.
Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs: New Techniques for Shorter and Faster Constructions and Applications 📺
We devise new techniques for design and analysis of efficient lattice-based zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP). First, we introduce one-shot proof techniques for non-linear polynomial relations of degree $$k\ge 2$$, where the protocol achieves a negligible soundness error in a single execution, and thus performs significantly better in both computation and communication compared to prior protocols requiring multiple repetitions. Such proofs with degree $$k\ge 2$$ have been crucial ingredients for important privacy-preserving protocols in the discrete logarithm setting, such as Bulletproofs (IEEE S&P ’18) and arithmetic circuit arguments (EUROCRYPT ’16). In contrast, one-shot proofs in lattice-based cryptography have previously only been shown for the linear case ($$k=1$$) and a very specific quadratic case ($$k=2$$), which are obtained as a special case of our technique.Moreover, we introduce two speedup techniques for lattice-based ZKPs: a CRT-packing technique supporting “inter-slot” operations, and “NTT-friendly” tools that permit the use of fully-splitting rings. The former technique comes at almost no cost to the proof length, and the latter one barely increases it, which can be compensated for by tweaking the rejection sampling parameters while still having faster computation overall.To illustrate the utility of our techniques, we show how to use them to build efficient relaxed proofs for important relations, namely proof of commitment to bits, one-out-of-many proof, range proof and set membership proof. Despite their relaxed nature, we further show how our proof systems can be used as building blocks for advanced cryptographic tools such as ring signatures.Our ring signature achieves a dramatic improvement in length over all the existing proposals from lattices at the same security level. The computational evaluation also shows that our construction is highly likely to outperform all the relevant works in running times. Being efficient in both aspects, our ring signature is particularly suitable for both small-scale and large-scale applications such as cryptocurrencies and e-voting systems. No trusted setup is required for any of our proposals.