International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Alfred Menezes

Affiliation: University of Waterloo

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2012
EUROCRYPT
Another Look at Provable Security 📺
Alfred Menezes
2010
EPRINT
Intractable Problems in Cryptography
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
We examine several variants of the Diffie-Hellman and Discrete Log problems that are connected to the security of cryptographic protocols. We discuss the reductions that are known between them and the challenges in trying to assess the true level of difficulty of these problems, particularly if they are interactive or have complicated input.
2010
EPRINT
On the Efficiency and Security of Pairing-Based Protocols in the Type 1 and Type 4 Settings
We focus on the implementation and security aspects of cryptographic protocols that use Type 1 and Type 4 pairings. On the implementation front, we report improved timings for Type 1 pairings derived from supersingular elliptic curves in characteristic 2 and 3 and the first timings for supersingular genus-2 curves in characteristic 2 at the 128-bit security level. In the case of Type 4 pairings, our main contribution is a new method for hashing into ${\mathbb G}_2$ which makes the Type 4 setting almost as efficient as Type 3. On the security front, for some well-known protocols we discuss to what extent the security arguments are tenable when one moves to genus-2 curves in the Type 1 case. In Type 4, we observe that the Boneh-Shacham group signature scheme, the very first protocol for which the Type 4 setting was introduced in the literature, is trivially insecure, and we describe a small modification that appears to restore its security.
2009
EPRINT
Comparing Two Pairing-Based Aggregate Signature Schemes
In 2003, Boneh, Gentry, Lynn and Shacham (BGLS) devised the first provably-secure aggregate signature scheme. Their scheme uses bilinear pairings and their security proof is in the random oracle model. The first pairing-based aggregate signature scheme which has a security proof that does not make the random oracle assumption was proposed in 2006 by Lu, Ostrovsky, Sahai, Shacham and Waters (LOSSW). In this paper, we compare the security and efficiency of the BGLS and LOSSW schemes when asymmetric pairings derived from Barreto-Naehrig (BN) elliptic curves are employed.
2008
EPRINT
Elliptic Curve Cryptography: The Serpentine Course of a Paradigm Shift
Over a period of sixteen years elliptic curve cryptography went from being an approach that many people mistrusted or misunderstood to being a public key technology that enjoys almost unquestioned acceptance. We describe the sometimes surprising twists and turns in this paradigm shift, and compare this story with the commonly accepted Ideal Model of how research and development function in cryptography. We also discuss to what extent the ideas in the literature on "social construction of technology" can contribute to a better understanding of this history.
2008
EPRINT
Analyzing the Galbraith-Lin-Scott Point Multiplication Method for Elliptic Curves over Binary Fields
Galbraith, Lin and Scott recently constructed efficiently-computable endomorphisms for a large family of elliptic curves defined over F_{q^2} and showed, in the case where q is prime, that the Gallant-Lambert-Vanstone point multiplication method for these curves is significantly faster than point multiplication for general elliptic curves over prime fields. In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of using Galbraith-Lin-Scott elliptic curves in the case where q is a power of 2. The analysis differs from the q prime case because of several factors, including the availability of the point halving strategy for elliptic curves over binary fields. Our analysis and implementations show that Galbraith-Lin-Scott offers significant acceleration for curves over binary fields, in both doubling- and halving-based approaches. Experimentally, the acceleration surpasses that reported for prime fields (for the platform in common), a somewhat counterintuitive result given the relative costs of point addition and doubling in each case.
2007
EPRINT
Another Look at Non-Standard Discrete Log and Diffie-Hellman Problems
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
We examine several versions of the one-more-discrete-log and one-more-Diffie-Hellman problems. In attempting to evaluate their intractability, we find conflicting evidence of the relative hardness of the different problems. Much of this evidence comes from natural families of groups associated with curves of genus 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This leads to questions about how to interpret reductionist security arguments that rely on these non-standard problems.
2007
JOFC
2006
EPRINT
Another Look at "Provable Security". II
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
We discuss the question of how to interpret reduction arguments in cryptography. We give some examples to show the subtlety and difficulty of this question.
2006
EPRINT
Another Look at Generic Groups
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
Starting with Shoup's seminal paper [24], the generic group model has been an important tool in reductionist security arguments. After an informal explanation of this model and Shoup's theorem, we discuss the danger of flaws in proofs. We next describe an ontological difference between the generic group assumption and the random oracle model for hash functions. We then examine some criticisms that have been leveled at the generic group model and raise some questions of our own.
2005
EPRINT
Pairing-Based Cryptography at High Security Levels
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
In recent years cryptographic protocols based on the Weil and Tate pairings on elliptic curves have attracted much attention. A notable success in this area was the elegant solution by Boneh and Franklin of the problem of efficient identity-based encryption. At the same time, the security standards for public key cryptosystems are expected to increase, so that in the future they will be capable of providing security equivalent to 128-, 192-, or 256-bit AES keys. In this paper we examine the implications of heightened security needs for pairing-based cryptosystems. We first describe three different reasons why high-security users might have concerns about the long-term viability of these systems. However, in our view none of the risks inherent in pairing-based systems are sufficiently serious to warrant pulling them from the shelves. We next discuss two families of elliptic curves E for use in pairing-based cryptosystems. The first has the property that the pairing takes values in the prime field F_p over which the curve is defined; the second family consists of supersingular curves with embedding degree k=2. Finally, we examine the efficiency of the Weil pairing as opposed to the Tate pairing and compare a range of choices of embedding degree k, including k=1 and k=24.
2005
EPRINT
Another look at HMQV
Alfred Menezes
HMQV is a `hashed variant' of the MQV key agreement protocol. It was recently introduced by Krawczyk, who claimed that HMQV has very significant advantages over MQV: (i) a security proof under reasonable assumptions in the (extended) Canetti-Krawczyk model for key exchange; and (ii) superior performance in some situations. In this paper we demonstrate that HMQV is insecure by presenting realistic attacks in the Canetti-Krawczyk model that recover a victim's static private key. We propose HMQV-1, a patched version of HMQV that resists our attacks (but does not have any performance advantages over MQV). We also identify the fallacies in the security proof for HMQV, critique the security model, and raise some questions about the assurances that proofs in this model can provide.
2004
EPRINT
Another Look at ``Provable Security''
Neal Koblitz Alfred Menezes
We give an informal analysis and critique of several typical ``provable security'' results. In some cases there are intuitive but convincing arguments for rejecting the conclusions suggested by the formal terminology and ``proofs,'' whereas in other cases the formalism seems to be consistent with common sense. We discuss the reasons why the search for mathematically convincing theoretical evidence to support the security of public-key systems has been an important theme of researchers. But we argue that the theorem-proof paradigm of theoretical mathematics is of limited relevance here and often leads to papers that are confusing and misleading. Because our paper is aimed at the general mathematical public, it is self-contained and as jargon-free as possible.
2004
EPRINT
Cryptographic Implications of Hess' Generalized GHS Attack
Alfred Menezes Edlyn Teske
A finite field K is said to be weak for elliptic curve cryptography if all instances of the discrete logarithm problem for all elliptic curves over K can be solved in significantly less time than it takes Pollard's rho method to solve the hardest instances. By considering the GHS Weil descent attack, it was previously shown that characteristic two finite fields GF(q^5) are weak. In this paper, we examine characteristic two finite fields GF(q^n) for weakness under Hess' generalization of the GHS attack. We show that the fields GF(q^7) are potentially partially weak in the sense that any instance of the discrete logarithm problem for half of all elliptic curves over GF(q^7), namely those curves E for which #E is divisible by 4, can likely be solved in significantly less time than it takes Pollard's rho method to solve the hardest instances. We also show that the fields GF(q^3) are partially weak, that the fields GF(q^6) are potentially weak, and that the fields GF(q^8) are potentially partially weak. Finally, we argue that the other fields GF(2^N) where N is not divisible by 3, 5, 6, 7 or 8, are not weak under Hess' generalized GHS attack.
2003
PKC
2003
EPRINT
Weak Fields for ECC
Alfred Menezes Edlyn Teske Annegret Weng
We demonstrate that some finite fields, including GF(2^210) are weak for elliptic curve cryptography in the sense that any instance of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem for any elliptic curve over these fields can be solved in significantly less time than it takes Pollard's rho method to solve the hardest instances. We discuss the implications of our observations to elliptic curve cryptography, and list some open problems.
2001
EPRINT
Solving Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problems Using Weil Descent
We provide a concrete instance of the discrete logarithm problem on an elliptic curve over F_{2^{155}} which resists all previously known attacks, but which can be solved with modest computer resources using the Weil descent attack methodology of Frey. We report on our implementation of index-calculus methods for hyperelliptic curves over characteristic two finite fields, and discuss the cryptographic implications of our results.
2001
EPRINT
Analysis of the GHS Weil Descent Attack on the ECDLP over Characteristic Two Finite Fields of Composite Degree
Markus Maurer Alfred Menezes Edlyn Teske
In this paper, we analyze the Gaudry-Hess-Smart (GHS) Weil descent attack on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) for elliptic curves defined over characteristic two finite fields of composite extension degree. For each such field $F_{2^N}$, $N \in [100,600]$, we identify elliptic curve parameters such that (i) there should exist a cryptographically interesting elliptic curve $E$ over $F_{2^N}$ with these parameters; and (ii) the GHS attack is more efficient for solving the ECDLP in $E(F_{2^N})$ than for solving the ECDLP on any other cryptographically interesting elliptic curve over $F_{2^N}$. We examine the feasibility of the GHS attack on the specific elliptic curves over $F_{2^{176}}$, $F_{2^{208}}$, $F_{2^{272}}$, $F_{2^{304}}$, and $F_{2^{368}}$ that are provided as examples inthe ANSI X9.62 standard for the elliptic curve signature scheme ECDSA. Finally, we provide several concrete instances of the ECDLP over $F_{2^N}$, $N$ composite, of increasing difficulty which resist all previously known attacks but which are within reach of the GHS attack.
2000
CHES
1999
PKC
1993
JOFC
1992
EUROCRYPT
1990
AUSCRYPT

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2011
Eurocrypt 2011
PKC 2010
Eurocrypt 2008
Crypto 2007 (Program chair)
PKC 2007
Asiacrypt 2005
PKC 2004
Crypto 2002
Asiacrypt 2002
Eurocrypt 2000
Asiacrypt 2000
Crypto 1998
Crypto 1994