Affiliation: Hubert Curien Laboratory, University of Lyon at St. Etienne.
Double Ciphertext Mode : A Proposal for Secure Backup
Security of data stored in bulk storage devices like the hard disk has gained a lot of importance in the current days. Among the variety of paradigms which are available for disk encryption, low level disk encryption is well accepted because of the high security guarantees it provides. In this paper we view the problem of disk encryption from a different direction. We explore the possibility of how one can maintain secure backups of the data, such that loss of a physical device will mean neither loss of the data nor the fact that the data gets revealed to the adversary. We propose an efficient solution to this problem through a new cryptographic scheme which we call as the double ciphertext mode (DCM). In this paper we describe the syntax of DCM, define security for it and give some efficient constructions. Moreover we argue regarding the suitability of DCM for the secure backup application and also explore other application areas where a DCM can be useful.
Reconfigurable Hardware Implementations of Tweakable Enciphering Schemes
Tweakable enciphering schemes are length preserving block cipher modes of operation that provide a strong pseudo-random permutation. It has been suggested that these schemes can be used as the main building blocks for achieving in-place disk encryption. In the past few years there has been an intense research activity towards constructing secure and efficient tweakable enciphering schemes. But, actual experimental performance data of these newly proposed schemes are yet to be reported. Accordingly, in this paper we present optimized FPGA implementations of five tweakable enciphering schemes, namely, HCH, HCTR, XCB, EME and TET, using a 128-bit AES core as the underlying block cipher. We report performance timings of these modes when using both, pipelined and sequential AES structures. The universal polynomial hash function included in the specification of HCH, HCHfp (a variant of HCH), HCTR, XCB and TET, was implemented using a Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier as the main building block. We provide detailed analyses of each of the schemes and their experimental performances achieved in various scenarios. Our experiments show that a sequential AES core is not an attractive option for the design of these modes as it leads to rather poor throughputs. In contrast, by using an encryption/decryption pipelined AES core we get a throughput of 3.67 Gbps for HCTR and by using a encryption only pipeline AES core we get a throughput of 5.71 Gbps for EME. The performance results reported in this paper provide experimental evidence that hardware implementations of tweakable enciphering schemes can actually match and even outperform the data rates achieved by state-of-the-technology disk controllers, thus showing that they might be used for achieving provably secure in-place hard disk encryption.