International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Iordanis Kerenidis

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2015
EPRINT
2015
CRYPTO
2008
TCC
2007
EPRINT
The role of help in Classical and Quantum Zero-Knowledge
André Chailloux Iordanis Kerenidis
We study the role of help in Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge protocols and its relation to the standard interactive model. In the classical case, we show that help and interaction are equivalent, answering an open question of Ben-Or and Gutfreund (\cite{BG03}). This implies a new complete problem for the class SZK, the Image Intersection Density. For this problem, we also prove a polarization lemma which is stronger than the previously known one. In the quantum setting, we define the notion of quantum help and show in a more direct way that help and interaction are again equivalent. Moreover, we define quantum Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge with classical help and prove that it is equal to the class of languages that have classical honest-Verifier Zero Knowledge protocols secure against quantum Verifiers (\cite{Wat06, HKSZ07}). Last, we provide new complete problems for all these quantum classes. Similar results were independently discovered by Dragos Florin Ciocan and Salil Vadhan.
2007
EPRINT
Interactive and Noninteractive Zero Knowledge are Equivalent in the Help Model
We show that interactive and noninteractive zero-knowledge are equivalent in the `help model' of Ben-Or and Gutfreund ({\em J. Cryptology}, 2003). In this model, the shared reference string is generated by a probabilistic polynomial-time dealer who is given access to the statement to be proven. Our results do not rely on any unproven complexity assumptions and hold for statistical zero knowledge, for computational zero knowledge restricted to AM, and for quantum zero knowledge when the help is a pure quantum state.